Changes between Initial Version and Version 1 of TracEnvironment


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Timestamp:
Nov 5, 2014, 5:03:51 PM (5 years ago)
Author:
trac
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  • TracEnvironment

    v1 v1  
     1= The Trac Environment =
     2
     3Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the “environment”.
     4
     5== Creating an Environment ==
     6
     7A new Trac environment is created using  [TracAdmin#initenv trac-admin's initenv]:
     8{{{
     9$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv
     10}}}
     11
     12`trac-admin` will ask you for the name of the project and the
     13database connection string (explained below).
     14
     15=== Some Useful Tips
     16
     17 - Place your environment's directory on a filesystem which supports sub-second timestamps, as Trac monitors the timestamp of its configuration files and changes happening on a filesystem with too coarse-grained timestamp resolution may go undetected in Trac < 1.0.2 (this is also true for the location of authentication files when using TracStandalone).
     18
     19 - The user under which the web server runs will require file system write permission to
     20 the environment directory and all the files inside. Please remember to set
     21 the appropriate permissions. The same applies to the source code repository,
     22 although the user under which Trac runs will only require write access to a Subversion repository created with the BDB file system; for other repository types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
     23 
     24 - `initenv`, when using an svn repository, does not imply that trac-admin will perform `svnadmin create` for the specified repository path. You need to perform the `svnadmin create` prior to `trac-admin initenv` if you're creating a new svn repository altogether with a new trac environment, otherwise you will see a message "Warning: couldn't index the repository" when initializing the environment.
     25
     26 - Non-ascii environment paths are not supported
     27 
     28 - Also, it seems that project names with spaces can be problematic for authentication (see [trac:#7163]).
     29
     30 - TracPlugins located in a [TracIni#inherit-section shared plugins folder] that is defined in an [TracIni#GlobalConfiguration inherited configuration] are currently not loaded during creation, and hence, if they need to create extra tables for example, you'll need to [TracUpgrade#UpgradetheTracEnvironment upgrade the environment] before being able to use it.
     31
     32== Database Connection Strings ==
     33
     34Since version 0.9, Trac supports both [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite] and
     35[http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] database backends.  Preliminary
     36support for [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] was added in 0.10.  The default is
     37to use SQLite, which is probably sufficient for most projects. The database
     38file is then stored in the environment directory, and can easily be
     39[wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the rest of the environment.
     40
     41Note that if the username or password of the connection string (if applicable) contains the `:`, `/` or `@` characters, they need to be URL encoded.
     42
     43=== SQLite Connection String ===
     44The connection string for an SQLite database is:
     45{{{
     46sqlite:db/trac.db
     47}}}
     48where `db/trac.db` is the path to the database file within the Trac environment.
     49
     50=== PostgreSQL Connection String ===
     51If you want to use PostgreSQL or MySQL instead, you'll have to use a
     52different connection string. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL
     53database on the same machine called `trac`, that allows access to the
     54user `johndoe` with the password `letmein`, use:
     55{{{
     56postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost/trac
     57}}}
     58
     59If PostgreSQL is running on a non-standard port (for example 9342), use:
     60{{{
     61postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost:9342/trac
     62}}}
     63
     64On UNIX, you might want to select a UNIX socket for the transport,
     65either the default socket as defined by the PGHOST environment variable:
     66{{{
     67postgres://user:password@/database
     68}}}
     69or a specific one:
     70{{{
     71postgres://user:password@/database?host=/path/to/socket/dir
     72}}}
     73
     74Note that with PostgreSQL you will have to create the database before running
     75`trac-admin initenv`.
     76
     77See the [http://www.postgresql.org/docs/ PostgreSQL documentation] for detailed instructions on how to administer [http://postgresql.org PostgreSQL].
     78Generally, the following is sufficient to create a database user named `tracuser`, and a database named `trac`.
     79{{{
     80createuser -U postgres -E -P tracuser
     81createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac
     82}}}
     83When running `createuser` you will be prompted for the password for the user 'tracuser'. This new user will not be a superuser, will not be allowed to create other databases and will not be allowed to create other roles. These privileges are not needed to run a trac instance. If no password is desired for the user, simply remove the `-P` and `-E` options from the `createuser` command.  Also note that the database should be created as UTF8. LATIN1 encoding causes errors trac's use of unicode in trac.  SQL_ASCII also seems to work.
     84
     85Under some default configurations (debian) one will have run the `createuser` and `createdb` scripts as the `postgres` user.  For example:
     86{{{
     87sudo su - postgres -c 'createuser -U postgres -S -D -R -E -P tracuser'
     88sudo su - postgres -c 'createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac'
     89}}}
     90
     91Trac uses the `public` schema by default but you can specify a different schema in the connection string:
     92{{{
     93postgres://user:pass@server/database?schema=yourschemaname
     94}}}
     95
     96=== MySQL Connection String ===
     97
     98The format of the MySQL connection string is similar to the examples presented for PostgreSQL, with the `postgres` schema being replaced by `mysql`. For example, to connect to a MySQL
     99database on the same machine called `trac`, allowing access to the
     100user `johndoe` with the password `letmein`, the mysql connection string is:
     101{{{
     102mysql://johndoe:letmein@localhost:3306/trac
     103}}}
     104
     105== Source Code Repository ==
     106
     107Since version 0.12, a single Trac environment can be connected to more than one repository. There are many different ways to connect repositories to an environment, see TracRepositoryAdmin. This page also details the various attributes that can be set for a repository (like `type`, `url`, `description`).
     108
     109In Trac 0.12 `trac-admin` no longer asks questions related to repositories. Therefore, by default Trac is not connected to any source code repository, and the ''Browse Source'' toolbar item will not be displayed.
     110You can also explicitly disable the `trac.versioncontrol.*` components (which are otherwise still loaded)
     111{{{
     112[components]
     113trac.versioncontrol.* = disabled
     114}}}
     115
     116For some version control systems, it is possible to specify not only the path to the repository,
     117but also a ''scope'' within the repository. Trac will then only show information
     118related to the files and changesets below that scope. The Subversion backend for
     119Trac supports this; for other types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
     120
     121Example of a configuration for a Subversion repository used as the default repository:
     122{{{
     123[trac]
     124repository_type = svn
     125repository_dir = /path/to/your/repository
     126}}}
     127
     128The configuration for a scoped Subversion repository would be:
     129{{{
     130[trac]
     131repository_type = svn
     132repository_dir = /path/to/your/repository/scope/within/repos
     133}}}
     134
     135== Directory Structure ==
     136
     137An environment directory will usually consist of the following files and directories:
     138
     139 * `README` - Brief description of the environment.
     140 * `VERSION` - Contains the environment version identifier.
     141 * `attachments` - Attachments to wiki pages and tickets are stored here.
     142 * `conf`
     143   * `trac.ini` - Main configuration file. See TracIni.
     144 * `db`
     145   * `trac.db` - The SQLite database (if you're using SQLite).
     146 * `htdocs` - directory containing web resources, which can be referenced in Genshi templates using `/htdocs/site/...` URLs. ''(since 0.11)''
     147 * `log` - default directory for log files, if logging is turned on and a relative path is given.
     148 * `plugins` - Environment-specific [wiki:TracPlugins plugins] (Python eggs or single file plugins, since [trac:milestone:0.10 0.10])
     149 * `templates` - Custom Genshi environment-specific templates. ''(since 0.11)''
     150   * `site.html` - method to customize header, footer, and style, described in TracInterfaceCustomization#SiteAppearance
     151
     152=== Caveat: don't confuse a ''Trac environment directory'' with the ''source code repository directory'' #Caveat
     153
     154This is a common beginners' mistake.
     155It happens that the structure for a Trac environment is loosely modelled after the Subversion repository directory
     156structure, but those are two disjoint entities and they are not and ''must not'' be located at the same place.
     157
     158----
     159See also: TracAdmin, TracBackup, TracIni, TracGuide