Changes between Version 37 and Version 38 of TBR/UserApp/Space/Proba_2


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Timestamp:
Nov 13, 2018, 5:51:35 PM (7 months ago)
Author:
Sal
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fix typos and format

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  • TBR/UserApp/Space/Proba_2

    v37 v38  
    1 = Proba 2 =
    2 
    3 
    4 
    51[[TOC(TBR/UserApp/Space/Proba_2, depth=2)]]
    62
    7 '''Proba-2''', Proba stands for PRoject for OnBoard Autonomy. The Proba satellites are among the smallest spacecraft
    8 ever to be flown by ESA, but they are making a big impact in the field of space technology. Proba-2 is the
    9 second of the series, building on nearly eight years of successful Proba-1 experience.
    10 {| align="center"
    11 [wiki:File:Proba-2-in-orbit-rear-view.jpg 400px]
    12 |}
    13 = Mission Parameters =
    14 
    15 
    16 
    17 
    18 '''PROBA-2 Mission Parameters'''
    19 |-
    20 ||= Sponsor: =||||= Expected Life: =||||= Primary Applications: =||||= Primary SLR Applications: =||||= COSPAR ID: =||||= SIC Code: =||
    21 ||ESA||||2 years||||Sun observations; technology demonstration||||Precision orbit determination||||0905902||||8005||
    22 
    23      
    24 
    25 ||=NORAD SSC Code:=||||=Launch Date:=||||=NP Bin Size:=||||=RRA Diameter:=||||=RRA Shape:=||||=Reflectors:=||
    26 ||36037||||02-Nov-2009||||15 seconds||||16 cm||||hemispherical||||7 corner cubes||
    27 
    28  
    29 ||Orbit:||||Altitude (mean):||||Inclination:||||Eccentricity:||||Weight:||
    30 ||Sun-synchronous dusk-dawn||||757 km||||98.445 degrees||||0.00116-0.0025||||130 kg||
    31 
    32 = PROBA 2 MISSION SUMMARY =
     3PROBA stands for PRoject for OnBoard Autonomy. The PROBA satellites are among the smallest spacecraft ever to be flown by ESA, but they are making a big impact in the field of space technology. PROBA-2 is the second of the series, building on nearly eight years of successful PROBA-1 experience.
     4
     5[[Image(https://devel.rtems.org/old_images/Proba-2-in-orbit-rear-view.jpg, 400px)]]
     6
     7Figure 1: Rear view of PROBA-2 in orbit
     8
     9= Mission Parameters
     10||=Sponsor =|| ESA ||
     11||=Expected Life =|| 2 years ||
     12||=Primary Applications =|| Sun observations and technology demonstration ||
     13||=Primary SLR Applications =|| Precision orbit determination ||
     14||=COSPAR ID =|| 0905902 ||
     15||=SIC Code =|| 8005 ||
     16||=NORAD SSC Code =|| 36037 ||
     17||=Launch Date =|| 02-Nov-2009 ||
     18||=NP Bin Size =|| 15 seconds ||
     19||=RRA Diameter =|| 16 cm ||
     20||=RRA Shape =|| hemispherical ||
     21||=Reflectors =|| 7 corner cubes ||
     22||=Orbit =|| Sun-synchronous dusk-dawn ||
     23||=Altitude (mean) =|| 757 km ||
     24||=Inclination =|| 98.445 degrees ||
     25||=Eccentricity =|| 0.00116-0.0025 ||
     26||=Weight =|| 130 kg ||
     27
     28= Mission Summary
    3329
    3430Following on from the success of PROBA-1, which successfully completed its technological goals in its first
     
    3632PROBA-2, now in phase C/D and due for launch in September 2007, will once again fly a suite of new
    3733technology demonstrators with an ‘added value’ science package of four experiments. Altogether there are
    38 seventeen new developments being flown on Proba-2, divided into two groups: platform technologies which
     34seventeen new developments being flown on PROBA-2, divided into two groups: platform technologies which
    3935are part of the infrastructure and are mission critical and passenger technologies to gain flight heritage and
    4036experience before committing them to the infrastructure of other missions. Of the four Science experiments, two
     
    4339scientific payload and technology experiments
    4440
    45 = 1.1. Mission objectives =
    46 
    47 The PROBA 2 mission objectives, as deduced from the ESA requirements, can be summarized as follows:
    48  *   PROBA 2 will be a platform to demonstrate and validate new, advanced technologies in order to promote their usage in future missions,
    49  *   As such, PROBA 2 shall accommodate a number of selected technology experiments,
    50  *   PROBA 2 shall furthermore accommodate a series of scientific payloads, in the fields of space environment (plasma) and solar observations;
    51  *   The PROBA 2 system shall be designed to support an in-orbit operational lifetime of 2 years;
    52  *   The PROBA 2 orbit shall be preferably a LEO Sun-synchronous orbit with minimized eclipse time;
    53  *   PROBA 2 shall have a high degree of spacecraft autonomy and ground support automation.
    54 = 1.2. Launch and orbit =
    55 
    56 PROBA 2 is planned to be launched from Plesetsk, Russia, in September 2007, on a Rockot launcher.
    57 PROBA 2 will be a secondary-passenger of the launch of the SMOS (ESA) spacecraft. It will be directly
     41= Mission objectives
     42
     43The PROBA-2 mission objectives, as deduced from the ESA requirements, can be summarized as follows:
     44 *   PROBA-2 will be a platform to demonstrate and validate new, advanced technologies in order to promote their usage in future missions,
     45 *   As such, PROBA-2 shall accommodate a number of selected technology experiments,
     46 *   PROBA-2 shall furthermore accommodate a series of scientific payloads, in the fields of space environment (plasma) and solar observations;
     47 *   The PROBA-2 system shall be designed to support an in-orbit operational lifetime of 2 years;
     48 *   The PROBA-2 orbit shall be preferably a LEO Sun-synchronous orbit with minimized eclipse time;
     49 *   PROBA-2 shall have a high degree of spacecraft autonomy and ground support automation.
     50= Launch and orbit
     51
     52PROBA-2 is planned to be launched from Plesetsk, Russia, in September 2007, on a Rockot launcher.
     53PROBA-2 will be a secondary-passenger of the launch of the SMOS (ESA) spacecraft. It will be directly
    5854injected in a Sun-synchronous LEO orbit, with an altitude between 700-800 km (baseline 728km) and
    5955with the LTAN at 6:00 AM +/- 15 minutes. The orbit injection accuracy provided by the launcher is sufficient
     
    6359eclipse season is less than 20 minutes. Since the orbit remains acceptable for the solar
    6460observations during the complete mission lifetime, propulsion is not needed to support the mission.
    65 However, as is documented below, a propulsion system is accommodated onboard PROBA 2 as a technology
     61However, as is documented below, a propulsion system is accommodated onboard PROBA-2 as a technology
    6662demonstration.
    67 = 1.3. Ground segment =
    68 
    69 As for PROBA1, the PROBA2 spacecraft will be operated from the Redu Ground station (Belgium).
    70 = PROBA 2 SPACE SEGMENT DESCRIPTION =
    71 
    72 PROBA 2 has a weight of less than 130 kg and belongs to the class of the mini-satellites (Figure 1). Its
     63= Ground segment
     64
     65As for PROBA-1, the PROBA-2 spacecraft will be operated from the Redu Ground station (Belgium).
     66= Space segment
     67
     68PROBA-2 has a weight of less than 130 kg and belongs to the class of the mini-satellites. Its
    7369structure is built using aluminum and CFRP honeycomb panels. Triple junction Gallium Arsenide solar cells,
    7470body mounted on 1 panel and mounted on 2 deployable panels, provide the power to the spacecraft and a Li-Ion
     
    8379onboard. The spacecraft platform provides full redundancy.
    8480
    85 {| align="center"
    86 |+'''PROBA 2 Block Diagram'''
    87 |-
    88 |PROBA2_Auto11.jpeg
    89 |}
    90 = 2.1. PROBA 2 platform =
    91 = 2.1.1. Mechanical and thermal =
    92 
    93 The PROBA 2 structure is derived from the PROBA 1 structure and is compatible with launchers such as
     81[[Image(https://devel.rtems.org/old_images/PROBA2_Auto11.jpeg)]]
     82
     83Figure 2: PROBA-2 Block Diagram
     84
     85= PROBA-2 platform
     86== Mechanical and thermal
     87
     88The PROBA-2 structure is derived from the PROBA-1 structure and is compatible with launchers such as
    9489ROCKOT, PSLV and DNEPR. The carrying part of the structure is composed of 3 aluminum honeycomb panels
    9590mounted in an H-structure and a bottom board. Almost all units are mounted on these inner panels. The bottom
     
    111106possible.
    112107
    113 {| align="center"
    114 [wiki:File:PROBA2_Auto14.jpeg File:PROBA2 Auto14.jpeg]
    115 |}
    116 
    117 Figure 3 PROBA 2 internal structure and accommodation
    118 
    119 2.1.2. Attitude control and Navigation system
    120 The PROBA 2 ACNS is strongly based on the PROBA 1 ACNS. The latter was a complex system providing (i)
     108[[Image(https://devel.rtems.org/old_images/PROBA2_Auto14.jpeg)]]
     109
     110Figure 3: PROBA-2 internal structure and accommodation
     111
     112== Attitude control and Navigation system
     113The PROBA-2 ACNS is strongly based on the PROBA-1 ACNS. The latter was a complex system providing (i)
    1211143-axis attitude control including high accuracy pointing and maneuvering capabilities in different pointing
    122115modes, (ii) full spacecraft attitude control based only on target oriented commands and (iii) the demonstration of
    123116new technologies. Furthermore, it was developed relying heavily on the use of Computer-Aided Software
    124 Engineering tools. The PROBA 2 ACNS includes the full PROBA 1 ACNS, with the additional functionality
     117Engineering tools. The PROBA-2 ACNS includes the full PROBA-1 ACNS, with the additional functionality
    125118to support the solar observation mission. This includes an improved Sun-model and the possible inclusion of a
    126119sun-sensor in the control loop. Furthermore, the ACNS incorporates a technology demonstration of a series of
     
    131124
    132125Finally, the ACNS functions support automatic “image paving” for the Sun-Imaging instrument (SWAP)
    133 in order to increase its actual field of view. PROBA 2, as PROBA 1, has been fitted with a highaccuracy
     126in order to increase its actual field of view. PROBA-2, as PROBA-1, has been fitted with a highaccuracy
    134127double head star tracker, with GPS receiversand with a set of reaction wheels for the nominal ACNS
    135128operation. This set of sensors and actuators is complemented with the magnetotorquers and 3-axis
    136 magnetometers. As explained above, PROBA 2 carries as well an additional star tracker, an additional GPS, an
     129magnetometers. As explained above, PROBA-2 carries as well an additional star tracker, an additional GPS, an
    137130additional magnetometer and a Sun Sensor as technology demonstrations.
    138131
    139 As on PROBA 1, the star tracker is the main attitude determination sensor. It provides full-sky coverage and
     132As on PROBA-1, the star tracker is the main attitude determination sensor. It provides full-sky coverage and
    140133achieves the high accuracy required for Sun pointing. The sensor can autonomously reconstruct the
    141134spacecraft’s inertial attitude starting from a “lost in space” attitude with a performance of a few arc-seconds
    142135up to an arc-minute. The attitude can be reconstructed at relatively high inertial rates, which allows the ACNS
    143136software to perform gyro-less rate measurements sufficiently accurately to control large-angle precise and
    144 stable manoeuvres. The model selected to fly on PROBA 2 is the micro-autonomous stellar compass (m-
    145 ASC), a next generation of the star tracker to that flown onboard PROBA 1. It requires less electrical power,
     137stable manoeuvres. The model selected to fly on PROBA-2 is the micro-autonomous stellar compass (m-
     138ASC), a next generation of the star tracker to that flown onboard PROBA-1. It requires less electrical power,
    146139has a lower mass and smaller volume, can connect to 4 camera heads instead of to 2 (although only 2 are used
    147 in PROBA 2) and provides attitude output at 4 Hz instead of 2 Hz. The star tracker is provided by the
     140in PROBA-2) and provides attitude output at 4 Hz instead of 2 Hz. The star tracker is provided by the
    148141Technical University of Denmark. Orbit and time knowledge is acquired autonomously
    149 from measurements performed by a GPS receiver. As a technology demonstration, PROBA 2 flies a redundant
     142from measurements performed by a GPS receiver. As a technology demonstration, PROBA-2 flies a redundant
    150143set of Phoenix GPS receivers provided by DLR.
    151 {| align="center"
    152 [wiki:File:PROBA2_Auto2.jpeg File:PROBA2 Auto2.jpeg]
    153 |}
    154 Phoenix GPS architecture for PROBA-2
     144
     145[[Image(https://devel.rtems.org/old_images/PROBA2_Auto2.jpeg)]]
     146
     147Figure 4: Phoenix GPS architecture for PROBA-2
    155148
    156149It is a miniature receiver specifically designed for high dynamics space applications. It is based on SigTech’s
     
    202195
    203196
    204 The PROBA 2 operational modes for the ACNS are as follows:
     197The PROBA-2 operational modes for the ACNS are as follows:
    205198 *   The Bdot mode (safe mode): uses the Earth’s magnetic field to reduce angular rates after separation and also
    206199as a safe mode during the mission. It ensures that the solar arrays on the deployed panels remain roughly pointed towards the Sun.
     
    213206 *   The Earth target mode controls the spacecraft attitude so that it points to a target on Earth.
    214207
    215 2.1.3. Avionics
     208== Avionics
    216209The avionics is composed by: (i) a high-performance redundant central computer (ADPMS, which provides part of the power subsystem as well, see below) responsible for spacecraft telemetry and part of the science data, all spacecraft computing tasks, some
    217210science data processing tasks and interfaces to every unit of the spacecraft; (ii) a mass memory unit,
     
    219212S-Band receivers and transmitters.
    220213
    221 2.1.3.1. ADPMS data handling system
    222 
    223 The PROBA 2 data handling, storage and processing system (ADPMS, Advanced Data and Power
     214=== ADPMS data handling system
     215
     216The PROBA-2 data handling, storage and processing system (ADPMS, Advanced Data and Power
    224217Management System) is highly centralised in a single, redundant, high-performance computing unit, based on
    225218the radiation hard LEON2-FT processor. It was developed by Verhaert Space under a separate ESA
     
    241234specifications for its mechanical (Compact PCI boards with small 3U format), electrical (AMBA AHB bus)
    242235and software design, ensuring good compatibility between modules during integration and testing.
    243 ADPMS is specifically configured for the PROBA 2 spacecraft and a separation detection system has been
     236ADPMS is specifically configured for the PROBA-2 spacecraft and a separation detection system has been
    244237added, which keeps the spacecraft powered off while it is mated with the launch vehicle and powers it up at
    245 detection of separation. ADPMS communicates with the other PROBA 2 units by means of serial UART
     238detection of separation. ADPMS communicates with the other PROBA-2 units by means of serial UART
    246239interfaces, digital in- and outputs, analogue inputs, digital pulse, clock and datation lines.
    247240ADPMS furthermore provides a series of telecommand decoders supporting the COP-1 packet telecommanding
     
    249242Channels.
    250243
    251 2.1.3.2. Mass memory unit
     244=== Mass memory unit
    252245
    253246A redundant module, called the MCPM (Memory, compression and packetisation module), to collect and
     
    258251telemetry system via a dedicated virtual channel. The memory is provided by a SDRAM memory array.
    259252
    260 2.1.3.3. TT&C
     253=== TT&C
    261254The S-band link capacities are 64 Kbit/s for packet telecommanding and a maximum of 1 Mb/s for the
    262255packet telemetry. SPL-PCM directly phase-modulated on the carrier is used for the uplink and BPSK for the
     
    265258whilst keeping the spacecraft Sun-pointed, both for commanding and telemetry.
    266259
    267 2.1.4. Power subsystem
     260== Power subsystem
    268261The basic power consumption of the platform is 34 - 48W (depending on the mode). The excess of power will
    269262be allocated to the payloads. In Sun-pointing mode, outside eclipse, the solar arrays can generate a power of
     
    272265during most nominal mission phases and on one body mounted panel for contingency situations. The 16.5 Ah
    273266Li-ion battery will be used mainly in eclipse and during specific technology experiments with peak power higher
    274 than the power available from the solar arrays. It is built from SAFT cells and PROBA 2 will act as the first
     267than the power available from the solar arrays. It is built from SAFT cells and PROBA-2 will act as the first
    275268in-orbit qualification for these cells.
    276269
    277 The PROBA 2 power conditioning and distribution system is based on the effective utilisation of this
    278 Lithium-ion battery. While the battery technology was successfully proven in orbit for LEO by PROBA 1, the
    279 PROBA 2 power subsystem optimizes the power conditioning and distribution for this specific type of
     270The PROBA-2 power conditioning and distribution system is based on the effective utilisation of this
     271Lithium-ion battery. While the battery technology was successfully proven in orbit for LEO by PROBA-1, the
     272PROBA-2 power subsystem optimizes the power conditioning and distribution for this specific type of
    280273battery. A much simpler charge- and discharge regulation compared to that needed for Nickel-
    281274Cadmium batteries has considerably reduced the required size for the power conditioning system.
    282275Furthermore, taking into account that all connected units and payloads can withstand certain variations in the
    283 incoming power, the regulated 28V power bus used on PROBA 1 was replaced by a battery regulated bus.
     276incoming power, the regulated 28V power bus used on PROBA-1 was replaced by a battery regulated bus.
    284277Both simplifications have reduced the size and dissipation of the system sufficiently to allow
    285278integration of these power functions with the digital functions of the data handling system into a single box.
    286279Hence ADPMS (advanced data and power management system).
    287280
    288 2.1.5. Onboard software
    289 The PROBA 2 onboard software running on ADPMS can be divided in 3 domains: (i) the mission dependant
     281== Onboard software
     282The PROBA-2 onboard software running on ADPMS can be divided in 3 domains: (i) the mission dependant
    290283domain, (ii) the mission independent domain and (iii) the platform domain. It’s overall architecture is based
    291 on the PROBA 1 and SMART onboard software and for the mission independent domain considerable re-use
     284on the PROBA-1 and SMART onboard software and for the mission independent domain considerable re-use
    292285from both missions has been achieved. The mission dependant domain functionalities concern
    293286the main objectives of the mission (earth observation, solar observation, etc.). They relate to the general
    294287spacecraft subsystem management and to the payload management. These are the on-board Applications.
    295 Despite the different nature of the management of the instruments (PROBA 1 with its target based Earth
    296 observation instruments versus PROBA 2 with its Sunobserving instruments operating almost continuously),
    297 the PROBA 2 application managers implement a similar level of onboard autonomy. The main target is to limit
     288Despite the different nature of the management of the instruments (PROBA-1 with its target based Earth
     289observation instruments versus PROBA-2 with its Sunobserving instruments operating almost continuously),
     290the PROBA-2 application managers implement a similar level of onboard autonomy. The main target is to limit
    298291the need for ground commanding during nominal and routine mission operations and to ensure effective
    299292failure detection, isolation and recovery.
     
    313306compress the LYRA and SWAP science data, optimizing as such the scientific mission return.
    314307Validation of the complete onboard software is supported by a Software Validation Facility (SVF),
    315 running on a PC platform and specifically developed to simulate the PROBA 2 hardware. This approach was
    316 successfully applied for the PROBA 1 onboard software validation.
    317 = 2.2. PROBA 2 payloads =
    318 
    319 The following sections provide an overview of the scientific and technology experiments that were selected to fly onboard PROBA 2.
     308running on a PC platform and specifically developed to simulate the PROBA-2 hardware. This approach was
     309successfully applied for the PROBA-1 onboard software validation.
     310= PROBA-2 payloads
     311
     312The following sections provide an overview of the scientific and technology experiments that were selected to fly onboard PROBA-2.
    320313The scientific payloads can be grouped in two groups: one set of complementary Sun observation instruments
    321314(LYRA and SWAP) and one set of plasma measurement units (TPMU and DSLP).
    322 == 2.2.1 Scientific payloads ==
    323 
    324 == =2.2.1.1 Sun Watcher using APS detectors and image ===
    325 
    326 
     315== Scientific payloads
     316
     317=== Sun Watcher using APS detectors and image
    327318Processing (SWAP)
    328319SWAP is an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) telescope that will provide images of the solar corona at a temperature
     
    342333the limited bandwidth downlink by near loss-less image compression and prioritising the images based on their
    343334contents. It also supports automated detection of space weather events such as flares, EIT waves, prominence
    344 and filament eruptions. The SWAP instrument will make use of the PROBA 2 platform agility (the automatic paving
     335and filament eruptions. The SWAP instrument will make use of the PROBA-2 platform agility (the automatic paving
    345336manoeuvres) to effectively increase its field of view when needed (up to 3 times the sun radius)
    346337allowing autonomous flare tracking up to 3 times the sun radius.
    347338
    348 [wiki:File:PROBA2_Auto1F.jpeg File:PROBA2 Auto1F.jpeg]
    349 Figure 7 Open view of the main components of SWAP
    350 and SWAP Flight Model (image courtesy AMOS S.A.)
    351 == =2.2.1.2 Lyman Alpha Radiometer (LYRA) ===
    352 
     339[[Image(https://devel.rtems.org/old_images/PROBA2_Auto1F.jpeg)]]
     340
     341Figure 5: Open view of the main components of SWAP and SWAP Flight Model (image courtesy AMOS S.A.)
     342
     343=== Lyman Alpha Radiometer (LYRA)
    353344LYRA is a solar UV radiometer manufactured by a Belgian-Swiss-German consortium including the Royal Observatory of Belgium, the Centre Spatiale de Liege, and the World Radiation Centre in Davos. It will monitor the solar radiantion in four UV bands. The
    354345channels have been chosen for their relevance to Solar Physics, Aeronomy, and Space Weather: 115-125 nm
     
    360351LYRA demonstrates technologies important for future missions such as the ESA Solar Orbiter. The instrument
    361352has an acquisition cadence up to 100Hz.
    362 == =2.2.1.3 Thermal Plasma Measurement Unit (TPMU) ===
     353=== Thermal Plasma Measurement Unit (TPMU)
    363354
    364355The Thermal Plasma Measurement Unit comprises a Sensor Block, which consist of probes and preamplifiers, and a Processing Block. TPMU contains 3 experiments which measure the total ion density and electron temperature, the ion composition and ion temperature, and the floating potential of the satellite body.
     
    366357For further info [http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ESA4S_06_11d.pdf PROBA-2 MISSION AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES OVERVIEW]
    367358
    368 = RetroReflector Array (RRA) Characteristics: =
     359= RetroReflector Array (RRA) Characteristics
    369360
    370361
     
    41040115. Flatness of cubes' surfaces (as a fraction of wavelength):
    41140216. Whether or not the cubes are coated and with what material:
    412 = Proba2 Station DATA =
     403= PROBA-2 Station DATA =
    413404
    414405
     
    428419= Providing flight opportunities =
    429420
    430 The Proba satellites are part of ESA’s In orbit Technology Demonstration Programme: missions dedicated
     421The PROBA satellites are part of ESA’s In orbit Technology Demonstration Programme: missions dedicated
    431422to the demonstration of innovative technologies. In orbit demonstration is the last step on the technology
    432423development ladder. New technology products need to be demonstrated in orbit, particularly when users
    433424require evidence of flight heritage or when there is a high risk associated with use of the new technology.
    434425In orbit demonstration is achieved through experiments on carriers of opportunity, e.g. the International
    435 Space Station, or through dedicated small satellites such as the Proba series, which were created to increase
     426Space Station, or through dedicated small satellites such as the PROBA series, which were created to increase
    436427the availability of flight-testing opportunities.
    437428= Ensuring a competitive European industry =
     
    442433
    443434
    444 Proba-2 is the result of ESA’s commitment to technological innovation. Altogether, 17 new technological developments and four scientific experiments are being flown on Proba-2.
     435PROBA-2 is the result of ESA’s commitment to technological innovation. Altogether, 17 new technological developments and four scientific experiments are being flown on PROBA-2.
     436
    445437= Technology demonstrations =
    446 
    447  = '''The technology demonstrations are:''' =
    448 
    449 
    450  *  a new type of lithium-ion battery, developed by SAFT (FR)
    451  *  an advanced data and power management system, containing many new component technologies including the LEON processor developed by Verhaert Space (BE)
    452  *  combined carbon-fibre and aluminium structural panels, developed by Apco Technologies SA (CH)
    453  *  new models of reaction wheels from Dynacon (CA), startrackers from DTU (DK) and GPS receivers from DLR (DE)
    454  *  an upgraded telecommand system with a decoder largely implemented in software by STT- SystemTechnik GmbH (DE)
    455  *  a digital Sun-sensor, developed by TNO (NL)
    456  *  a dual-frequency GPS receiver, developed by Alcatel Espace (FR)
    457  *  a fibre-sensor system for monitoring temperatures and pressures around the satellite, developed by MPB Communications Inc. (CA)
    458  *  a new startracker development being test-flown before use on the BepiColombo mission, developed by Galileo Avionica (IT)
    459  *  a very high-precision flux-gate magnetometer, developed by DTU (DK)
    460  *  an experimental solar panel with a solar flux concentrator, developed by CSL (BE)
    461  *  a xenon gas propulsion system using resistojet thrusters and a solid-state nitrogen gas generator to pressurise the propellant tanks, developed by SSTL (GB) and Bradford (NL)
    462  *  an exploration micro-camera (X-CAM), developed by Micro-cameras & Space Exploration (CH)
    463  *  new GNC algorithms developed by NGC (CA)
    464 = '''The two solar observation experiments are:''' =
    465 
    466 
    467  *  a Large Yield Radiometer (LYRA) that will monitor four bands in a very wide ultraviolet spectrum, with Centre Spatial de Liège as lead institute supported by the Royal Observatory of Belgium as scientific leader and with an international team comprising PMOD (CH), IMOMEC (BE) and BISA (BE)
    468  *  an extreme-ultraviolet telescope (SWAP) using new pixel sensor technology (APS), that will make measurements of the solar corona in a very narrow band, with Centre Spatial de Liège as lead institute supported by the Royal Observatory of Belgium and with an industrial team comprising Alcatel-Lucent (BE), AMOS SA (BE), DELTATEC (BE), Fill
    469 Factory NV (BE) and OIP NV (BE)
    470 = '''The two space weather experiments are:''' =
    471 
    472 
     438 *  A new type of lithium-ion battery, developed by SAFT (FR)
     439 *  An advanced data and power management system, containing many new component technologies including the LEON processor developed by Verhaert Space (BE)
     440 *  Combined carbon-fibre and aluminium structural panels, developed by Apco Technologies SA (CH)
     441 *  New models of reaction wheels from Dynacon (CA), startrackers from DTU (DK) and GPS receivers from DLR (DE)
     442 *  An upgraded telecommand system with a decoder largely implemented in software by STT- SystemTechnik GmbH (DE)
     443 *  A digital Sun-sensor, developed by TNO (NL)
     444 *  A dual-frequency GPS receiver, developed by Alcatel Espace (FR)
     445 *  A fibre-sensor system for monitoring temperatures and pressures around the satellite, developed by MPB Communications Inc. (CA)
     446 *  A new startracker development being test-flown before use on the BepiColombo mission, developed by Galileo Avionica (IT)
     447 *  A very high-precision flux-gate magnetometer, developed by DTU (DK)
     448 *  An experimental solar panel with a solar flux concentrator, developed by CSL (BE)
     449 *  A xenon gas propulsion system using resistojet thrusters and a solid-state nitrogen gas generator to pressurise the propellant tanks, developed by SSTL (GB) and Bradford (NL)
     450 *  An exploration micro-camera (X-CAM), developed by Micro-cameras & Space Exploration (CH)
     451 *  New GNC algorithms developed by NGC (CA)
     452 
     453= Solar observation experiments =
     454
     455 *  A Large Yield Radiometer (LYRA) that will monitor four bands in a very wide ultraviolet spectrum, with Centre Spatial de Liège as lead institute supported by the Royal Observatory of Belgium as scientific leader and with an international team comprising PMOD (CH), IMOMEC (BE) and BISA (BE)
     456 *  An extreme-ultraviolet telescope (SWAP) using new pixel sensor technology (APS), that will make measurements of the solar corona in a very narrow band, with Centre Spatial de Liège as lead institute supported by the Royal Observatory of Belgium and with an industrial team comprising Alcatel-Lucent (BE), AMOS SA (BE), DELTATEC (BE), Fill
     457Factory NV (BE) and OIP NV (BE)
     458
     459= Space weather experiments =
    473460 *  Dual Segmented Langmuir Probes (DSLP), which will measure electron density and temperature in the background plasma of the Earth’s magnetosphere
    474461 *  a thermal plasma measurement unit (TPMU), that will measure ion densities and composition
     
    476463Both were developed by a Czech consortium, led by the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (CZ).
    477464
    478 In total, ten European countries and Canada were involved in the construction of the Proba-2 satellite.
     465In total, ten European countries and Canada were involved in the construction of the PROBA-2 satellite.
    479466= Effective Engineering =
    480467
     
    517504
    518505 *  Provision of daily global coverage of the land masses in the latitudes 35º and 75º North and in the latitudes between 35° and 56° South, with a 90% daily coverage of equatorial zones - and 100% two-daily imaging, during day time, of the land masses in the latitudes between 35º North and 35º South..
    519 
    520 [wiki:File:ProbaV_Auto12.jpeg File:ProbaV Auto12.jpeg]
    521 Figure 1: Artist's view of the PROBA-V spacecraft (image credit: ESA) 12) 13)
     506[[Image(https://devel.rtems.org/old_images/ProbaV_Auto12.jpeg)]]
     507
     508Figure 6: Artist's view of the PROBA-V spacecraft (image credit: ESA) 12) 13)
    522509
    523510An extensive feasibility study and trade-off work was undertaken to identify a solution that could meet not only the technical challenges, but that could also be developed and tested within a tight budget of a small satellite mission.
     
    535522 *  HMA (Heterogeneous Mission Access) and QA4EO (Quality Assurance for Earth Observation) implementation for user data. Planned interoperability with GSCDA V2 (GMES Space Component Data Access Version 2).
    536523
    537 [wiki:File:ProbaV_Auto11.jpeg File:ProbaV Auto11.jpeg]
    538 Figure 2: PROBA-V project organization (image credit: ESA, Ref. 9)
    539 = Spacecraft: =
     524[[Image(https://devel.rtems.org/old_images/ProbaV_Auto11.jpeg)]]
     525
     526Figure 7: PROBA-V project organization (image credit: ESA, Ref. 9)
     527= Spacecraft =
    540528
    541529
     
    548536The power distribution and conditioning part of ADPMS supplies an unregulated bus, with each equipment having its internal DC/DC converter. The power conditioning system is designed around a Li-ion battery.
    549537
    550 [wiki:File:ProbaV_Auto10.jpeg File:ProbaV Auto10.jpeg]
    551 Figure 3: PROBA-V spacecraft accommodation (image credit: QinetiQ Space)
     538[[Image(https://devel.rtems.org/old_images/ProbaV_Auto10.jpeg)]]
     539Figure 8: PROBA-V spacecraft accommodation (image credit: QinetiQ Space)
    552540
    553541AOCS (Attitude and Orbit Control Subsystem) provides three-axis attitude control including high accuracy pointing and maneuvering in different spacecraft attitude modes. The AOCS SW is an extension of the one of PROBA-2, including the following algorithms required by the on-board autonomous mission and payload management: 16)
     
    593581Data compression: The massive amount of data produced by the instrument is beyond the capabilities of the bandwidth available on board of a small satellite. Data are reduced by using a lossless data compression algorithm implemented in a specific electronics. The data compression ratio obtained using standard CCSDS compression algorithms (CCSDS 133.0 B-1) is shown in Table 2.
    594582
    595 Spectral band
    596        
    597 
    598 Compression ratio
    599 
    600 Blue 10.8
    601 
    602 Red 7.2
    603 
    604 NIR 5.4
    605 
    606 SWIR 2
     583||= Spectral band =||= Compression ratio =||
     584||=Blue =|| 10.8 ||
     585||=Red =|| 7.2 ||
     586||=NIR =|| 5.4 ||
     587||=SWIR =|| 2 ||
    607588
    608589Table 2: Overview of compression rates
     
    612593The development of the new X-band transmitter is based almost exclusively on COTS components to achieve at the same time high performances and low recurrent cost. The transmitter also features an innovative functionality with an on-board programmable RF output power from 1-10 W which allows to match finely with the chosen bit rate, and to reduce as much as possible the margins of the link budget and therefore the consumption power. PROBA-V is the first mission to use this newly developed transmitter. The transmitter has a mass of 1 kg, a size of 160 mm x 115 mm x 46 mm, an in-orbit life time of 5 years, and a radiation hardness of 10 krad. Data rates from 10-100 Mbit/s are available. The X-band transmitter was manufactured by TES Electonic Solutions of Bruz, France. 18)
    613594
    614 [wiki:File:ProbaV_AutoF.jpeg? File:ProbaV AutoF.jpeg?]
    615 Figure 4: Overview of the transmitter architecture (CNES, TES)
    616 
    617 [wiki:File:ProbaV_AutoE.jpeg File:ProbaV AutoE.jpeg]
    618 Figure 5: Photo of the X-band transmitter (image credit: CNES, ESA)
     595[[Image(https://devel.rtems.org/old_images/ProbaV_AutoF.jpeg)]]
     596
     597Figure 9: Overview of the transmitter architecture (CNES, TES)
     598
     599[[Image(https://devel.rtems.org/old_images/ProbaV_AutoE.jpeg)]]
     600
     601Figure 10: Photo of the X-band transmitter (image credit: CNES, ESA)
    619602
    620603For further info [http://events.eoportal.org/presentations/7111/10001905.html PROBA-V (Project for On-Board Autonomy - Vegetation)]
     
    631614
    632615 *  [http://www.esa.int/esaMI/Proba/SEMJJ5ZVNUF_0.html Official Page]
    633  *  [http://www.esa.int/esaMI/Proba_web_site/index.html ESA Proba1]
    634  *  [http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ESA4S_06_11d.pdf PROBA-2 MISSION AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES OVERVIEW]
     616 *  [http://www.esa.int/esaMI/Proba_web_site/index.html ESA PROBA-1]
     617 *  [http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ESA4S_06_11d.pdf PROBA-2 Mission and New Technologies Overview]
    635618 *  [http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/AIAA_ASC_087086.pdf Autonomous and Precise Navigation of the PROBA-2 Spacecraft]
    636619 *  [http://esamultimedia.esa.int/docs/Proba/Proba-2_Factsheet_8oct.pdf Factsheet]
    637620 *  [http://events.eoportal.org/presentations/7111/10001905.html PROBA-V (Project for On-Board Autonomy - Vegetation)]
    638  *  [http://www.esa.int/esaCP/SEMNOJRTJRG_index_0.html NEWS about Proba2]
     621 *  [http://www.esa.int/esaCP/SEMNOJRTJRG_index_0.html NEWS about PROBA-2]
    639622 *  [http://www.esa.int/esaCP/index.html ESA]
    640623 *  [http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/PROBA2_DLR_TN_0020.pdf Technical Information for PROBA-2 Laser Tracking Support ]
    641624 *  [http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/satellite_missions/list_of_satellites/prb2_stadata.html Station Data]
    642625 *  [http://inforum.org.pt/INForum2009/docs/full/paper_88.pdf RTEMS Improvement – Space Qualification of RTEMS]
    643  *  [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8481321.stm Esa's Proba-2 demonstration satellite views eclipse ]
     626 *  [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8481321.stm ESA's PROBA-2 demonstration satellite views eclipse ]
    644627 *  [http://www.esa.int/TEC/Software_engineering_and_standardisation/TECLUMKNUQE_2.html ESA Operating Systems]