Changes between Version 19 and Version 20 of TBR/UserApp/Space/Proba_2

Nov 29, 2011, 10:42:16 PM (8 years ago)


  • TBR/UserApp/Space/Proba_2

    v19 v20  
    294294The scientific payloads can be grouped in two groups: one set of complementary Sun observation instruments
    295295(LYRA and SWAP) and one set of plasma measurement units (TPMU and DSLP).
    297 2.2.1 Scientific payloads
    299 Sun Watcher using APS detectors and image
     296== 2.2.1 Scientific payloads ==
     298== = Sun Watcher using APS detectors and image ===
    301301 Processing (SWAP)
    323323Figure 7 Open view of the main components of SWAP
    324324and SWAP Flight Model (image courtesy AMOS S.A.)
    326 Lyman Alpha Radiometer (LYRA)
     325== = Lyman Alpha Radiometer (LYRA) ===
    327327LYRA is a solar UV radiometer manufactured by a Belgian-Swiss-German consortium including the Royal Observatory of Belgium, the Centre Spatiale de Liege, and the World Radiation Centre in Davos. It will monitor the solar radiantion in four UV bands. The
    328328channels have been chosen for their relevance to Solar Physics, Aeronomy, and Space Weather: 115-125 nm
    334334LYRA demonstrates technologies important for future missions such as the ESA Solar Orbiter. The instrument
    335335has an acquisition cadence up to 100Hz.
    337 Thermal Plasma Measurement Unit (TPMU)
     336== = Thermal Plasma Measurement Unit (TPMU) ===
    338338The Thermal Plasma Measurement Unit comprises a Sensor Block, which consist of probes and preamplifiers, and a Processing Block. TPMU contains 3 experiments which measure the total ion density and electron temperature, the ion composition and ion temperature, and the floating potential of the satellite body.
    395395To ensure on board autonomy, mission control system development is an integral part of the overall mission programme, along with the associated operations. Development occurs incrementally, with progressive validation taking place throughout activities ranging from software development, spacecraft integration and system testing to in-orbit operations.
     396=  PROBA-V (Project for On-Board Autonomy - Vegetation) =
     399The PROBA-V (Vegetation) mission definition is an attempt, spearheaded by ESA and CNES, to accommodate an improved smaller version of the large VGT (Vegetation) optical instrument of SPOT-4 and SPOT-5 mission heritage on a small satellite bus, such as the one of PROBA-2.
     401As of 2008, small satellite technologies have reached a level of maturity and reliability to be used as a platform for an operational Earth observation mission. Furthermore, advancements in the techniques of detectors, optics fabrication and metrology are considered sufficiently mature to permit the design of a compact multispectral optical instrument. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10)
     403The C/D Phase started in July 2010. The system CDR (Critical Design Review) took place in the spring of 2011. The acceptance review is planned for Dec. 2011 and the flight acceptance review is planned for the spring of 2012.. ESA is responsible for the overall mission, the technological payloads and for the launcher selection.
     405Background: The VGT instruments (VGT1 & VGT2), each with a mass of ~160 kg and fairly large size, have provided the user community with almost daily global observations of continental surfaces at a resolution of 1.15 km on a swath of ~2200 km. The instruments VGT1 on SPOT-4 (launch March 24, 1998) and VGT2 on SPOT-5 (launch May 4, 2002) are quasi similar optical instruments operating in the VNIR (3 bands) and SWIR (1 band) range.
     407The Vegetation instruments were jointly developed and funded by France, Belgium, Italy, Sweden, and the EC (European Commission). The consortium of CNES, BelSPO (Federal Public Planning Service Science Policy), SNSB (Swedish National Space Board) and VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research) is providing the user segment services (data processing, archiving, distribution). Vegetation principally addresses key observations in the following application domains:
     409 *  General land use in relation to vegetation cover and its changes
     411 *  Vegetation behavior to strong meteorological events (severe droughts) and climate changes (long-term behavior of the vegetation cover)
     413 *  Disaster management (detection of fires and surface water bodies)
     415 *  Biophysical parameters for model input devoted to water budgets and primary productivity (agriculture, ecosystem vulnerability, etc.).
     417As of 2008, a Vegetation archive of 10 years of consistent global data sets has been established permitting researchers access on a long-term basis. The SPOT-5 operational lifetime is estimated to expire in 2012. Pleiades, the next French satellite for Earth Observation, is solely dedicated to high-resolution imaging (on a fairly narrow swath) and will not embark any instrument providing vegetation data.
     419Since the SPOT series spacecraft will not be continued and the SPOT-5 spacecraft will eventually fail — there is of course a great interest in the EO user community to the Vegetation observation in the context of a smaller mission, affordable to all concerned. 11)
     421PROBA-V will continue the production of Vegetation products exploiting advanced small satellite technology. However, this implies in particular a redesign of the Vegetation payload into a much smaller unit to be able to accommodate it onto the PROBA bus.
     423Overview of key requirements of the PROBA-V mission - and some improvements compared to SPOT/Vegetation:
     425 *  Data and service continuity: filling the gap between SPOT-VGT and the Sentinel-3 mission
     427 *  Spectral and radiometric performance identical to VGT
     429 *  GSD: 1 km mandatory, improved GSD is highly disirable: 300 m (VNIR bands), 600 m (SWIR band). Image quality and geometric accuracy, equal to or better than SPOT-VGT
     431 *  Provision of daily global coverage of the land masses in the latitudes 35º and 75º North and in the latitudes between 35° and 56° South, with a 90% daily coverage of equatorial zones - and 100% two-daily imaging, during day time, of the land masses in the latitudes between 35º North and 35º South..
     433[wiki:File:ProbaV_Auto12.jpeg File:ProbaV Auto12.jpeg]
     434Figure 1: Artist's view of the PROBA-V spacecraft (image credit: ESA) 12) 13)
     436An extensive feasibility study and trade-off work was undertaken to identify a solution that could meet not only the technical challenges, but that could also be developed and tested within a tight budget of a small satellite mission.
     438The PROBA-V project of ESA includes the Space Segment (platform contract award to QinetiQ Space NV of Kruibeke, Belgium - formerly Verhaert), the Mission Control Center (Redu, Belgium) and the User Segment (data processing facility) at VITO NV. VITO (Vlaamse instelling voor technologisch onderzoek - Flemish Institute for Technological Research) is located in northern Belgium. VITO’s processing center of VGT1 and 2 data (SPOT-4 and SPOT-5) is operational since 1999. VITO is also the prime investigator and data service provider of PROBA-V for the user community including product quality control. 14)
     440Implementation schedule:
     442 *  The Phase B of the project started in January 2009
     444 *  SRR (System Requirements Review) is in Q4 of 2009
     446 *  PDR (Preliminary Design Review) in Q2 of 2010
     448 *  HMA (Heterogeneous Mission Access) and QA4EO (Quality Assurance for Earth Observation) implementation for user data. Planned interoperability with GSCDA V2 (GMES Space Component Data Access Version 2).
     450[wiki:File:ProbaV_Auto11.jpeg File:ProbaV Auto11.jpeg]
     451Figure 2: PROBA-V project organization (image credit: ESA, Ref. 9)
     452= Spacecraft: =
     455An industrial team, led by QinetiQ Space NV (Belgium), is supported by several European subcontractors and suppliers, and is responsible for the development of the flight satellite platform, the vegetation payload and the Ground Segment.
     457The spacecraft bus (fully redundant) is of heritage from the PROBA-1 and PROBA-2 missions (structure, avionics, AOCS, OBS with minor modifications). The PROBA-V spacecraft has a total mass of ~160 kg, and a volume of 80 cm x 80 cm x 100 cm. The three-axis stabilized platform is designed for a mission lifetime of 2.5 years (Ref. 7). 15)
     459The spacecraft resources management is built around ADPMS (Advanced Data and Power Management System), which is currently flying on PROBA-2. The data handling part of ADPMS is partitioned using compact PCI modules. A cold redundant mass memory module of 16 Gbit is foreseen for PROBA-V. The newly developed mass memory will use NAND flash technology.
     461The power distribution and conditioning part of ADPMS supplies an unregulated bus, with each equipment having its internal DC/DC converter. The power conditioning system is designed around a Li-ion battery.
     463[wiki:File:ProbaV_Auto10.jpeg File:ProbaV Auto10.jpeg]
     464Figure 3: PROBA-V spacecraft accommodation (image credit: QinetiQ Space)
     466AOCS (Attitude and Orbit Control Subsystem) provides three-axis attitude control including high accuracy pointing and maneuvering in different spacecraft attitude modes. The AOCS SW is an extension of the one of PROBA-2, including the following algorithms required by the on-board autonomous mission and payload management: 16)
     468- Prediction of land/sea transitions using a land sea mask to reduce the amount of data generated
     470- Optimization of attitude in Sun Bathing mode to enhance incoming power while avoiding star tracker blinding
     472- Momentum dumping without zero wheel speed crossings during imaging
     474- Estimations of remaining spacecraft magnetic dipole to reduce pointing error
     476- Autonomous avoidance of star tracker Earth/Sun blinding
     478- Inertial mode with fixed scanning rate for moon calibration.
     480The AOCS hardware selection for PROBA-V consists of a high accuracy double star tracker head, a set of reaction wheels, magnetotorquers, magnetometers and a GPS receiver.
     482The main AOCS modes are: Safe, Geodetic, Sun Bathing and Inertial mode.
     484- The satellite Safe mode is used to detumble the spacecraft after separation from the launcher and it will be used to recover from spacecraft anomalies.
     486- The Geodetic mode is used during nominal observation of the Earth’s vegetation. In this mode the payload is pointed towards the geodetic normal to the Earth’s surface. An extra steering compensation, yaw-steering, is added in this mode, to minimize the image distortion caused by the rotation of the Earth. This yaw-steering maneuver ensures that the spectral imagers are oriented such that the lines of pixels are perpendicular to the ground-trace at each moment. In this mode the star trackers and the GPS receiver are used as sensors and the reaction wheels as actuators.
     488- On each orbit, the spacecraft enters the Sun Bathing mode from -56º latitude until entry of eclipse. This is to enhance the incoming power.
     490- The Inertial mode coupled with an inertial scanning of the Moon at a fixed rate is used for monthly radiometric full moon instrument calibration purposes. The pointing towards the moon takes 2.5 min, 9 min for scanning the moon and 2.5 min to return to nominal observation mode. It is sufficient to have the moon in the FOV of the SI (Spectral Imager) for a number of pixels.
     492Beyond the technology demonstration through the PROBA program, it is also noted that the AOCS software technology developed in the course of this program is now the baseline of the AOCS of a major operational mission of the GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) program: Sentinel-3. NGC Aerospace Ltd (NGC) of Sherbrooke, (Québec), Canada was responsible for the design, implementation and validation of the autonomous GNC (Guidance, Navigation and Control) algorithms implemented as part of the AOCS software of PROBA-1 and PROBA-2. NGC has the same responsibilities for the PROBA-V mission (Ref. 16).
     494EPS (Electric Power Subsystem): The PVA (Photo-Voltaic Array) uses GaAs triple junction cells with an of efficiency of 28%. To obtain the operating voltage of 31.5 V, 18 cells are included in each string in series with a blocking diode. The PVA consists of a total of 25 solar strings taken into account the loss of one string on the most contributing PVA panel. The average solar string power under EOL conditions (summer solstice and T = 40°C) yields 12.8 W. The maximal incoming power at EOL during an orbit is 144 W. The energy budget for PROBA-V is derived for a bus power consumption of 140 W assuming a worst case day in the summer and while not taken into account the effect of albedo. A worst case power budget analysis indicated a maximum capacity discharge of 1.66 Ah. Use of a Li-ion battery. The battery cells provide a capacity of 1.5 Ah per string. The PROBA-V battery is sized to 12 Ah taking into account capacity fading and loss of a string.
    396495= External links =