source: rtems/doc/develenv/direct.texi @ 6449498

4.104.114.84.95
Last change on this file since 6449498 was 6449498, checked in by Joel Sherrill <joel.sherrill@…>, on Jan 17, 2002 at 9:47:47 PM

2001-01-17 Joel Sherrill <joel@…>

  • SUPPORT, LICENSE: New files.
  • Numerous files touched as part of merging the 4.5 branch onto the mainline development trunk and ensuring that the script that cuts snapshots and releases works on the documentation.
  • Property mode set to 100644
File size: 22.3 KB
Line 
1@c
2@c  COPYRIGHT (c) 1988-2002.
3@c  On-Line Applications Research Corporation (OAR).
4@c  All rights reserved.
5@c
6@c  $Id$
7@c
8
9@ifinfo
10@node Directory Structure, Directory Structure Suites, Introduction, Top
11@end ifinfo
12@chapter Directory Structure
13@ifinfo
14@menu
15* Directory Structure Suites::
16@end menu
17@end ifinfo
18
19The RTEMS directory structure is designed to meet
20the following requirements:
21
22@itemize @bullet
23@item encourage development of modular components.
24
25@item isolate processor and target dependent code, while
26allowing as much common source code as possible to be shared
27across multiple processors and targets.
28
29@item allow multiple RTEMS users to perform simultaneous
30compilation of RTEMS and its support facilities for different
31processors and targets.
32@end itemize
33
34The resulting directory structure has processor and
35target dependent source files isolated from generic files.  When
36RTEMS is built, object directories and an install point will be
37automatically created based upon the target BSP selected.  The
38placement of object files based upon the selected BSP name
39insures that object files are not mixed across CPUs or targets.
40This in combination with the make files allows the specific
41compilation options to be tailored for a particular target
42board.  For example, the efficiency of the memory subsystem for
43a particular target board may be sensitive to the alignment of
44data structures, while on another target board with the same
45processor memory may be very limited.  For the first target, the
46options could specify very strict alignment requirements, while
47on the second the data structures could be "packed" to conserve
48memory.  It is impossible to achieve this degree of flexibility
49without providing source code.
50@ifinfo
51@node Directory Structure Suites, C Suites, Directory Structure, Directory Structure
52@end ifinfo
53@section Suites
54@ifinfo
55@menu
56* C Suites::
57* Executive Source Directory::
58* Support Library Source Directory::
59* Test Suite Source Directory::
60@end menu
61@end ifinfo
62
63The RTEMS source tree is organized based on the
64following four variables:
65
66@itemize @bullet
67@item language,
68
69@item target processor,
70
71@item target board, and
72
73@item compiler vendor (Ada only).
74@end itemize
75
76The language may be either C or Ada and there is
77currently nothing shared between the source trees for these two
78implementations of RTEMS.  The user generally selects the
79subdirectory for the implementation they are using and ignores
80that for the other implementation.  The only exceptions to this
81normally occurs when comparing the source code for the two
82implementations or when porting both to a new CPU or target
83board.  The following shows the top level RTEMS directory
84structure which includes directories for each language
85implementation and a language independent source documentation
86directory.  The source documentation directory is currently not
87supported.
88
89@c
90@c  Tree 1 - Top Level
91@c
92
93@ifset use-ascii
94@example
95@group
96                      RTEMS
97                        |
98+-----------------------+-----------------------+
99|                                               |
100c                                              doc
101@end group
102@end example
103@end ifset
104
105@ifset use-tex
106@sp 1
107
108@tex
109{\parskip=0pt\offinterlineskip%
110\hskip 15.0em
111\hskip 1.25em\hbox to 3.00em{\hss{RTEMS}\hss}%
112\vrule width0em height1.972ex depth0.812ex\par\penalty10000
113\hskip 15.0em
114\hskip 2.75em\vrule width.04em%
115\vrule width0em height1.500ex depth0.500ex\par\penalty10000
116\hskip 15.0em
117\hskip 0.25em\vrule width2.50em height-0.407ex depth0.500ex%
118\vrule width.04em\vrule width2.50em height-0.407ex depth0.500ex%
119\vrule width0em height1.500ex depth0.500ex\par\penalty10000
120\hskip 15.0em
121\hskip 0.25em\vrule width.04em%
122\hskip 4.92em\vrule width.04em%
123\vrule width0em height1.500ex depth0.500ex\par\penalty10000
124\hskip 15.0em
125\hskip 0.00em\hbox to 0.50em{\hss{c}\hss}%
126\hskip 1.50em\hbox to 1.50em{\hss{   }\hss}%
127\hskip 1.00em\hbox to 1.50em{\hss{doc}\hss}%
128\vrule width0em height1.972ex depth0.812ex\par}
129@end tex
130@end ifset
131
132@c
133@c for now continue to use the ascii
134@c
135@ifset use-html
136@example
137@group
138                      RTEMS
139                        |
140+-----------------------+-----------------------+
141|                                               |
142c                                              doc
143@end group
144@end example
145@html
146@end html
147@end ifset
148
149Each of the following sections will describe the
150contents of the directories in the RTEMS source
151tree.
152
153@ifinfo
154@node C Suites, Executive Source Directory, Directory Structure Suites, Directory Structure Suites
155@end ifinfo
156@subsection C Suites
157
158The following table lists the suites currently included with the
159C implementation of RTEMS and the directory in which they may be located:
160
161@ifset use-texinfo-tables
162@table @code
163@item Support Libraries (BSPs, C library, CPU support)
164$RTEMS_ROOT/c/src/lib
165
166@item Single Processor Tests
167$RTEMS_ROOT/c/src/tests/sptests
168
169@item Timing Tests
170$RTEMS_ROOT/c/src/tests/tmtests
171
172@item Multiprocessor Tests
173$RTEMS_ROOT/c/src/tests/mptests
174
175@item Sample Applications
176$RTEMS_ROOT/c/src/tests/samples
177
178@item RTEMS Build Tools
179$RTEMS_SRC_BASE/c/build_tools
180
181@item Make Support
182$RTEMS_ROOT/c/make
183@end table
184@end ifset
185
186@ifclear use-texinfo-tables
187@html
188<CENTER>
189  <TABLE COLS=2 WIDTH="80%" BORDER=2>
190<TR><TD ALIGN=center>Support Libraries (BSPs, C library, CPU support)</TD>
191    <TD ALIGN=center>$RTEMS_ROOT/c/src/lib</TD></TR>
192<TR><TD ALIGN=center>Single Processor Tests</TD>
193    <TD ALIGN=center>$RTEMS_ROOT/c/src/tests/sptests</TD></TR>
194<TR><TD ALIGN=center>Timing Tests</TD>
195    <TD ALIGN=center>$RTEMS_ROOT/c/src/tests/tmtests</TD></TR>
196<TR><TD ALIGN=center>Multiprocessor Tests</TD>
197    <TD ALIGN=center>$RTEMS_ROOT/c/src/tests/mptests</TD></TR>
198<TR><TD ALIGN=center>Sample Applications</TD>
199    <TD ALIGN=center>$RTEMS_ROOT/c/src/tests/samples</TD></TR>
200<TR><TD ALIGN=center>RTEMS Build Tools</TD>
201    <TD ALIGN=center>$RTEMS_SRC_BASE/c/build_tools</TD></TR>
202<TR><TD ALIGN=center>Make Support</TD>
203    <TD ALIGN=center>$RTEMS_ROOT/c/make</TD></TR>
204  </TABLE>
205</CENTER>
206@end html
207@end ifclear
208
209
210The top level directory structure for the C implementation of RTEMS
211is as follows:
212
213@c
214@c  Tree 2 - Top C Level
215@c
216
217@ifset use-ascii
218@example
219@group
220                     C
221                     |
222    +----------+-----------+----------+
223    |          |           |          |
224build_tools   make        src   update_tools
225@end group
226@end example
227@end ifset
228
229@ifset use-tex
230@sp 1
231
232@tex
233{\parskip=0pt\offinterlineskip%
234\hskip 08.0em
235\hskip 13.00em\hbox to 0.50em{\hss{C}\hss}%
236\vrule width0em height1.972ex depth0.812ex\par\penalty10000
237\hskip 08.0em
238\hskip 13.25em\vrule width.04em%
239\vrule width0em height1.500ex depth0.500ex\par\penalty10000
240\hskip 08.0em
241\hskip 1.75em\vrule width11.50em height-0.407ex depth0.500ex%
242\vrule width.04em\vrule width11.50em height-0.407ex depth0.500ex%
243\vrule width0em height1.500ex depth0.500ex\par\penalty10000
244\hskip 08.0em
245\hskip 1.75em\vrule width.04em%
246\hskip 5.71em\vrule width.04em%
247\hskip 5.71em\vrule width.04em%
248\hskip 5.71em\vrule width.04em%
249\hskip 5.71em\vrule width.04em%
250\vrule width0em height1.500ex depth0.500ex\par\penalty10000
251\hskip 08.0em
252\hskip 0.00em\hbox to 3.50em{\hss{Modules}\hss}%
253\hskip 1.00em\hbox to 6.00em{\hss{build\_tools}\hss}%
254\hskip 1.75em\hbox to 2.00em{\hss{make}\hss}%
255\hskip 4.00em\hbox to 1.50em{\hss{src}\hss}%
256\hskip 1.75em\hbox to 6.50em{\hss{update\_tools}\hss}%
257\vrule width0em height1.972ex depth0.812ex\par}
258@end tex
259@end ifset
260
261@ifset use-html
262@example
263@group
264                     C
265                     |
266    +----------+-----------+----------+
267    |          |           |          |
268build_tools   make        src   update_tools
269@end group
270@end example
271@html
272@end html
273@end ifset
274
275This directory contains the subdirectories which
276contain the entire C implementation of the RTEMS executive. 
277The "build-tools" directory contains an assortment of support tools
278for the RTEMS development environment.  Two subdirectories exist
279under "build-tools" which contain scripts (executables) and
280source for the support tools.  The "make" directory contains
281configuration files and subdirectories which provide a robust
282host and cross-target makefile system supporting the building of
283the  executive for numerous application environments.  The
284"update_tools" directory contains utilities which aid in the
285updating from a previous version to the current version of the
286RTEMS executive.
287
288The "src" directory structure for the C implementation of RTEMS is as follows:
289
290@c
291@c  Tree 3 - Top C src Level
292@c
293
294@ifset use-ascii
295@example
296@group
297                     C Source
298                         |
299 +-----------------------+-----------------------+
300 |                       |                       |
301exec                    lib                    tests
302@end group
303@end example
304@end ifset
305
306@ifset use-tex
307@sp 1
308
309@tex
310{\parskip=0pt\offinterlineskip%
311\hskip 15.0em
312\hskip 2.00em\hbox to 4.00em{\hss{C Source}\hss}%
313\vrule width0em height1.972ex depth0.812ex\par\penalty10000
314\hskip 15.0em
315\hskip 4.00em\vrule width.04em%
316\vrule width0em height1.500ex depth0.500ex\par\penalty10000
317\hskip 15.0em
318\hskip 1.00em\vrule width3.00em height-0.407ex depth0.500ex%
319\vrule width.04em\vrule width3.00em height-0.407ex depth0.500ex%
320\vrule width0em height1.500ex depth0.500ex\par\penalty10000
321\hskip 15.0em
322\hskip 1.00em\vrule width.04em%
323\hskip 2.96em\vrule width.04em%
324\hskip 2.96em\vrule width.04em%
325\vrule width0em height1.500ex depth0.500ex\par\penalty10000
326\hskip 15.0em
327\hskip 0.00em\hbox to 2.00em{\hss{exec}\hss}%
328\hskip 1.25em\hbox to 1.50em{\hss{lib}\hss}%
329\hskip 1.00em\hbox to 2.50em{\hss{tests}\hss}%
330\vrule width0em height1.972ex depth0.812ex\par}
331@end tex
332@end ifset
333
334@ifset use-html
335@example
336@group
337                     C Source
338                         |
339 +-----------------------+-----------------------+
340 |                       |                       |
341exec                    lib                    tests
342@end group
343@end example
344@html
345@end html
346@end ifset
347
348This directory contains all source files that
349comprises the RTEMS executive, supported target board support
350packages, and the RTEMS Test Suite.
351
352@ifinfo
353@node Executive Source Directory, Support Library Source Directory, C Suites, Directory Structure Suites
354@end ifinfo
355@subsection Executive Source Directory
356
357The "exec" directory structure for the C implementation is as follows:
358
359@c
360@c  Tree 4 - C Executive Tree
361@c
362
363@ifset use-ascii
364@example
365@group
366                    C Executive
367                         |
368  +-----------+----------+-----------+----------+
369  |           |          |           |          |
370posix       rtems       sapi       score     wrapup
371@end group
372@end example
373@end ifset
374
375@ifset use-tex
376@sp 1
377
378@tex
379{\parskip=0pt\offinterlineskip%
380\hskip 10.0em
381\hskip 6.00em\hbox to 5.50em{\hss{C Executive}\hss}%
382\vrule width0em height1.972ex depth0.812ex\par\penalty10000
383\hskip 10.0em
384\hskip 8.75em\vrule width.04em%
385\vrule width0em height1.500ex depth0.500ex\par\penalty10000
386\hskip 10.0em
387\hskip 1.25em\vrule width7.50em height-0.407ex depth0.500ex%
388\vrule width.04em\vrule width7.50em height-0.407ex depth0.500ex%
389\vrule width0em height1.500ex depth0.500ex\par\penalty10000
390\hskip 10.0em
391\hskip 1.25em\vrule width.04em%
392\hskip 3.71em\vrule width.04em%
393\hskip 3.71em\vrule width.04em%
394\hskip 3.71em\vrule width.04em%
395\hskip 3.71em\vrule width.04em%
396\vrule width0em height1.500ex depth0.500ex\par\penalty10000
397\hskip 10.0em
398\hskip 0.00em\hbox to 2.50em{\hss{posix}\hss}%
399\hskip 1.25em\hbox to 2.50em{\hss{rtems}\hss}%
400\hskip 1.50em\hbox to 2.00em{\hss{sapi}\hss}%
401\hskip 1.50em\hbox to 2.50em{\hss{score}\hss}%
402\hskip 1.00em\hbox to 3.00em{\hss{wrapup}\hss}%
403\vrule width0em height1.972ex depth0.812ex\par}
404@end tex
405@end ifset
406
407@ifset use-html
408@example
409@group
410                    C Executive
411                         |
412  +-----------+----------+-----------+----------+
413  |           |          |           |          |
414posix       rtems       sapi       score     wrapup
415@end group
416@end example
417@html
418@end html
419@end ifset
420
421This directory contains a set of subdirectories which
422contains the source files comprising the executive portion of
423the RTEMS development environment.  At this point the API
424specific and "supercore" source code files are separated into
425distinct directory trees.  The "rtems" and the "posix"
426subdirectories contain the C language source files for each
427module comprising the respective API.  Also included in this
428directory are the subdirectories "sapi" and "score" which are
429the supercore modules.  Within the "score" directory the CPU
430dependent modules are found.
431
432The "cpu" directory contains a subdirectory for each
433target CPU supported by the @value{RELEASE} release of the RTEMS
434executive.  Each processor directory contains the CPU dependent
435code necessary to host RTEMS.  The "no_cpu" directory provides a
436starting point for developing a new port to an unsupported
437processor.  The files contained within the "no_cpu" directory
438may also be used as a reference for the other ports to specific
439processors.
440
441@ifinfo
442@node Support Library Source Directory, Test Suite Source Directory, Executive Source Directory, Directory Structure Suites
443@end ifinfo
444@subsection Support Library Source Directory
445
446The "lib" directory contains the support libraries and BSPS. 
447Board support packages (BSPs), processor environment start up code,
448C library support, the FreeBSD TCP/IP stack, common BSP header files,
449and miscellaneous support functions are provided in the subdirectories.
450These are combined with the RTEMS executive object to form the single
451RTEMS library which installed. 
452
453@c
454@c  Tree 6 - Libraries
455@c
456
457
458The "libbsp" directory contains a directory for each CPU family supported
459by RTEMS.  Beneath each CPU directory is a directory for each BSP for that
460processor family.
461
462@c
463@c  Tree 7 - C BSP Library
464@c
465
466The "libbsp" directory provides all the BSPs provided with this
467release of the RTEMS executive.  The subdirectories are
468divided,  as discussed previously, based on specific processor
469family, then further breaking down into specific target board
470environments.  The "shmdr" subdirectory provides the
471implementation of a shared memory driver which supports the
472multiprocessing portion of the executive.  In addition, two
473starting point subdirectories are provided for reference.  The
474"no_cpu" subdirectory provides a template BSP which can be used
475to develop a specific BSP for an unsupported target board.  The
476"stubdr" subdirectory provides stubbed out BSPs.  These files
477may aid in preliminary testing of the RTEMS development
478environment that has been built for no particular target in mind.
479
480Below each CPU dependent directory is a directory for each target BSP
481supported in this release.
482
483Each BSP provides the modules which comprise an RTEMS BSP.  The
484modules are separated into the subdirectories "clock", "console",
485"include", "shmsupp", "startup", and "timer" as shown in the following
486figure:
487
488@c
489@c  Tree 8 - Each BSP
490@c
491
492@ifset use-ascii
493@example
494@group
495                           Each BSP
496                               |
497  +-----------+----------+-----+-----+----------+----------+
498  |           |          |           |          |          |
499clock      console    include     shmsupp    startup     timer
500@end group
501@end example
502@end ifset
503
504@ifset use-tex
505@sp 1
506
507@tex
508{\parskip=0pt\offinterlineskip%
509\hskip 10.0em
510\hskip 10.25em\hbox to 4.50em{\hss{Each BSP}\hss}%
511\vrule width0em height1.972ex depth0.812ex\par\penalty10000
512\hskip 10.0em
513\hskip 12.50em\vrule width.04em%
514\vrule width0em height1.500ex depth0.500ex\par\penalty10000
515\hskip 10.0em
516\hskip 1.25em\vrule width11.25em height-0.407ex depth0.500ex%
517\vrule width.04em\vrule width11.25em height-0.407ex depth0.500ex%
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519\hskip 10.0em
520\hskip 1.25em\vrule width.04em%
521\hskip 4.46em\vrule width.04em%
522\hskip 4.46em\vrule width.04em%
523\hskip 4.46em\vrule width.04em%
524\hskip 4.46em\vrule width.04em%
525\hskip 4.46em\vrule width.04em%
526\vrule width0em height1.500ex depth0.500ex\par\penalty10000
527\hskip 10.0em
528\hskip 0.00em\hbox to 2.50em{\hss{clock}\hss}%
529\hskip 1.50em\hbox to 3.50em{\hss{console}\hss}%
530\hskip 1.00em\hbox to 3.50em{\hss{include}\hss}%
531\hskip 1.00em\hbox to 3.50em{\hss{shmsupp}\hss}%
532\hskip 1.00em\hbox to 3.50em{\hss{startup}\hss}%
533\hskip 1.50em\hbox to 2.50em{\hss{timer}\hss}%
534\vrule width0em height1.972ex depth0.812ex\par}
535@end tex
536@end ifset
537
538@ifset use-html
539@example
540@group
541                           Each BSP
542                               |
543  +-----------+----------+-----+-----+----------+----------+
544  |           |          |           |          |          |
545clock      console    include       ...      startup     timer
546@end group
547@end example
548@html
549@end html
550@end ifset
551
552@ifinfo
553@node Test Suite Source Directory, Sample Applications, Support Library Source Directory, Directory Structure Suites
554@end ifinfo
555@subsection Test Suite Source Directory
556
557The "tests" directory structure for the C
558implementation is as follows:
559
560@c
561@c  Tree 9 - C Tests
562@c
563
564@ifset use-ascii
565@example
566@group
567                                C Tests
568                                   |
569   +----------+---------+----------+---------+---------+---------+
570   |          |         |          |         |         |         |
571libtests   sptests   support    tmtests   mptests   psxtest   samples
572@end group
573@end example
574@end ifset
575
576@ifset use-tex
577@sp 1
578
579@tex
580{\parskip=0pt\offinterlineskip%
581\hskip 05.0em
582\hskip 14.50em\hbox to 3.50em{\hss{C Tests}\hss}%
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584\hskip 05.0em
585\hskip 16.25em\vrule width.04em%
586\vrule width0em height1.500ex depth0.500ex\par\penalty10000
587\hskip 05.0em
588\hskip 2.00em\vrule width14.25em height-0.407ex depth0.500ex%
589\vrule width.04em\vrule width14.25em height-0.407ex depth0.500ex%
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591\hskip 05.0em
592\hskip 2.00em\vrule width.04em%
593\hskip 4.71em\vrule width.04em%
594\hskip 4.71em\vrule width.04em%
595\hskip 4.71em\vrule width.04em%
596\hskip 4.71em\vrule width.04em%
597\hskip 4.71em\vrule width.04em%
598\hskip 4.71em\vrule width.04em%
599\vrule width0em height1.500ex depth0.500ex\par\penalty10000
600\hskip 05.0em
601\hskip 0.00em\hbox to 4.00em{\hss{libtests}\hss}%
602\hskip 1.00em\hbox to 3.50em{\hss{sptests}\hss}%
603\hskip 1.25em\hbox to 3.50em{\hss{support}\hss}%
604\hskip 1.25em\hbox to 3.50em{\hss{tmtests}\hss}%
605\hskip 1.25em\hbox to 3.50em{\hss{mptests}\hss}%
606\hskip 1.75em\hbox to 2.50em{\hss{tools}\hss}%
607\hskip 1.75em\hbox to 3.50em{\hss{samples}\hss}%
608\vrule width0em height1.972ex depth0.812ex\par}
609@end tex
610@end ifset
611
612@ifset use-html
613@example
614@group
615                                C Tests
616                                   |
617   +----------+---------+----------+---------+---------+---------+
618   |          |         |          |         |         |         |
619libtests   sptests   support    tmtests   mptests    tools    samples
620@end group
621@end example
622@html
623@end html
624@end ifset
625
626This directory provides the entire RTEMS Test Suite
627which includes the single processor tests, multiprocessor tests,
628timing tests, library tests, and sample tests.   Additionally,
629subdirectories for support functions and test related header
630files are provided.
631
632The "sptests" subdirectory consists of twenty-four
633tests designed to cover the entire executive code.  The
634"spfatal" test will verify any code associated with the
635occurrence of a fatal error.   Also provided is a test which
636will determine the size of the RTEMS executive.
637
638The multiprocessor test are provided in "mptests".
639Fourteen tests are provided in this subdirectory which address
640two node configurations and cover the multiprocessor code found
641in RTEMS.
642
643Tests that time each directive and a set of critical
644executive functions are provided in the "tmtests" subdirectory.
645Within this subdirectory  thirty-one tests are provided along
646with a subdirectory to contain each targets timing results.
647
648The "samples" directory structure for the C
649implementation is as follows:
650
651@c
652@c  Tree 10 - C Samples
653@c
654
655@ifset use-ascii
656@example
657@group
658                            C Samples
659                                |
660   +-----------+----------+-----+-----+----------+----------+
661   |           |          |           |          |          |
662base_mp     base_sp    cdtest       hello     paranoia    ticker
663@end group
664@end example
665@end ifset
666
667@ifset use-tex
668@sp 1
669
670@tex
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689\vrule width0em height1.500ex depth0.500ex\par\penalty10000
690\hskip 05.0em
691\hskip 0.00em\hbox to 4.00em{\hss{base\_mp}\hss}%
692\hskip 1.00em\hbox to 4.00em{\hss{base\_sp}\hss}%
693\hskip 1.50em\hbox to 3.00em{\hss{cdtest}\hss}%
694\hskip 2.25em\hbox to 2.50em{\hss{hello}\hss}%
695\hskip 1.75em\hbox to 4.00em{\hss{paranoia}\hss}%
696\hskip 1.50em\hbox to 3.00em{\hss{ticker}\hss}%
697\vrule width0em height1.972ex depth0.812ex\par}
698@end tex
699@end ifset
700
701@ifset use-html
702@example
703@group
704                            C Samples
705                                |
706   +-----------+----------+-----+-----+----------+----------+
707   |           |          |           |          |          |
708base_mp     base_sp    cdtest       hello     paranoia    ticker
709@end group
710@end example
711@html
712@end html
713@end ifset
714
715This directory provides sample application tests
716which aid in the testing a newly built RTEMS environment, a new
717BSP, or as starting points for the development of an application
718using the RTEMS executive.  A Hello World test is provided in
719the subdirectory "hello".  This test is helpful when testing new
720versions of RTEMS, BSPs, or modifications to any portion of the
721RTEMS development environment.  The "ticker" subdirectory
722provides a test for verification of clock chip device drivers of
723BSPs.  A simple single processor test similar to those in the
724single processor test suite is provided in "base_sp".  A simple
725two node multiprocessor test capable of testing an newly
726developed MPCI layer is provided in "base_mp".  The "cdtest"
727subdirectory provides a simple C++ application using
728constructors and destructors.   The final sample test is a
729public domain floating point and math library toolset test is
730provided in "paranoia".
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