source: rtems-libbsd/libbsd.txt @ de8a76d

5-freebsd-12
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[4c3433b]1RTEMS BSD Library Guide
2=======================
[8f5adbc]3:toc:
4:icons:
5:numbered:
6:website: http://www.rtems.org/
7
[4c3433b]8RTEMS uses FreeBSD 9.2 as the source of its TCP/IP and USB stacks.
9This is a guide which captures information on the
[8f5adbc]10process of merging code from FreeBSD, building this library,
11RTEMS specific support files, and general guidelines on what
12modifications to the FreeBSD source are permitted.
13
[4c3433b]14Goals of this effort are
[e392fdb7]15
[4c3433b]16* update TCP/IP and provide USB in RTEMS,
17* ease updating to future FreeBSD versions,
18* ease tracking changes in FreeBSD code,
19* minimize manual changes in FreeBSD code, and
20* define stable kernel/device driver API which is implemented
[e392fdb7]21by both RTEMS and FreeBSD. This is the foundation of the port.
22
23We will work to push our changes upstream to the FreeBSD Project
24and minimize changes required at each update point.
25
[4c3433b]26*******************************************************************************
[8f5adbc]27This is a work in progress and is very likely to be incomplete.
28Please help by adding to it.
[4c3433b]29*******************************************************************************
[8f5adbc]30
[4c3433b]31== Getting Started
[8f5adbc]32
[4c3433b]33=== Tool Chain ===
[8f5adbc]34
[97c5024a]35You need a tool chain for RTEMS based on at least RSB 4.12 April 2016 or later.
[1bb23f0]36
[9d955bc]37=== Installation Overview ===
[b6d5758]38
39. You must configure your BSP with the +--disable-networking+ option to disable
40the old network stack.  Make sure no header files of the old network stack are
41installed.
[97c5024a]42
[b6d5758]43. Clone the Git repository +git clone git://git.rtems.org/rtems-libbsd.git+.
44. Change into the RTEMS BSD library root directory.
[97c5024a]45. Edit the `config.inc` configuration file and adjust it to your environment.
46. Run +waf configure ...+.
47. Run +waf+.
48. Run +waf install+.
49
50Refer to the README.waf for Waf building instructions.
51
52Make sure the submodules have been initialised and are updated. If a 'git
53status' says `rtems_waf` need updating run the submodule update command:
54
55 $ git submodule rtems_waf update
[b6d5758]56
[4c3433b]57=== Board Support Package Requirements ===
58
[d6ad59d]59The RTEMS version must be at least 4.12.  The Board Support Package (BSP)
[4c3433b]60should support the
[9d955bc]61http://www.rtems.org/onlinedocs/doxygen/cpukit/html/group\__rtems\__interrupt__extension.html[Interrupt Manager Extension]
62// The first underscores have to be masked to stop asciidoc interpreting them
[4c3433b]63to make use of generic FreeBSD based drivers.
64
[da96928]65The linker command file of the BSP must contain the following section
66definitions:
[4c3433b]67
68-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
69.rtemsroset : {
70        KEEP (*(SORT(.rtemsroset.*)))
71}
72
73.rtemsrwset : {
74        KEEP (*(SORT(.rtemsrwset.*)))
75}
76-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
77
[da96928]78The first output section can be placed in read-only memory.  The second output
79section must be placed in read-write memory.  The output section name is not
80relevant.  The output sections may also contain other input sections.
[4c3433b]81
82=== Board Support Package Configuration and Build ===
83
84You need to configure RTEMS for the desired BSP and install it.  The BSP should
85be configured with a disabled network stack.  The BSD library containing the
86new network stack is a separate package.  Using a BSP installation containing
87the old network stack may lead to confusion and unpredictable results.
88
[d6ad59d]89The following script is used to build the `arm/xilinx_zynq_a9_qemu` BSP for
[4c3433b]90our internal testing purposes:
91
92-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
93#!/bin/sh
94
95cd ${HOME}/sandbox
[d6ad59d]96rm -rf b-xilinx_zynq_a9_qemu
97mkdir b-xilinx_zynq_a9_qemu
98cd b-xilinx_zynq_a9_qemu
[4c3433b]99${HOME}/git-rtems/configure \
100        --prefix=${HOME}/sandbox/install \
[d6ad59d]101        --target=arm-rtems4.12 \
102        --enable-rtemsbsp=xilinx_zynq_a9_qemu \
[4c3433b]103        --disable-networking && \
104        make && \
105        make install
106-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
107
[d6ad59d]108The `arm/xilinx_zynq_a9_qemu` BSP running on the Qemu simulator has some
[4c3433b]109benefits for development and test of the BSD library
110
111* it offers a NULL pointer read and write protection,
112* Qemu is a fast simulator,
113* Qemu provides support for GDB watchpoints,
114* Qemu provides support for virtual Ethernet networks, e.g. TUN and bridge
115devices (you can run multiple test instances on one virtual network).
116
117=== BSD Library Configuration and Build ===
118
[97c5024a]119The build system based on the Waf build system. To build with Waf please refer
120to the README.waf file.
[4517fa3]121
[97c5024a]122===== Example Configuration =====
[4517fa3]123
[ead7fdc]124In the BSD library source directory edit the file `config.inc`.  Continuing on
125the above, the `config.inc` used to match the above is:
[4c3433b]126
127-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
128# Mandatory: Select your BSP and installation prefix
[d6ad59d]129TARGET = arm-rtems4.12
130BSP = xilinx_zynq_a9_qemu
[4c3433b]131PREFIX = $(HOME)/sandbox/install
132
133# Optional: Separate installation base directory
134INSTALL_BASE = $(PREFIX)/$(TARGET)/$(BSP)
135
136# Optional: Network test configuration
137TEST_RUNNER = $(BSP)
138NET_CFG_SELF_IP = 10.0.0.2
139NET_CFG_NETMASK = 255.255.0.0
140NET_CFG_PEER_IP = 10.0.0.1
141NET_CFG_GATEWAY_IP = 10.0.0.1
142NET_TAP_INTERFACE = tap0
143-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
144
145=== BSD Library Initialization ===
146
[c67debb]147To initialise the BSD Library create a suitable rc.conf file. The FreeBSD man
148page rc.conf(5) provides the details needed to create a suitable format file:
149
150 https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?rc.conf
151
152You can call one of three functions to run the initialisation once BSD has
153initialised:
154
155 - rtems_bsd_run_etc_rc_conf: Run /etc/rc.conf.
156 - rtems_bsd_run_rc_conf: Run a user supplied file.
157 - rtems_bsd_run_rc_conf_script: Run the in memory line feed separated text string.
158
159For exapmle:
160
161 void
162 network_init(void)
163 {
164   rtems_status_code sc;
165
166   sc = rtems_bsd_initialize();
167   assert(sc == RTEMS_SUCCESSFUL);
168
169   rtems_bsd_run_etc_rc_conf(true); /* verbose = true */
170
171}
172
173By default the networking support is builtin. Other directives can be added and
174are found in 'machine/rtems-bsd-rc-conf-directives.h'. Please check the file
175for the list.
176
177The following network names are supported:
178
179  cloned_interfaces
180  ifconfig_'interface'
181  defaultrouter
182  hostname
183
184For example:
185
186 #
187 # My BSD initialisation.
188 #
189 hostname="myhost"
190 cloned_interfaces="vlan0 vlan1"
191 ifconfig_re0="inet inet 10.10.10.10 netmask 255.255.255.0"
192 fconfig_vlan0="inet 10.11.10.10 255.255.255.0 vlan 101 vlandev re0"
193 defaultrouter="10.10.10.1"
194
195You can also intialise the BSD library using code. The following code to
196initialize the BSD library:
[4c3433b]197
198-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
199#include <assert.h>
[ead7fdc]200#include <sysexits.h>
[4c3433b]201
[ead7fdc]202#include <machine/rtems-bsd-commands.h>
[4c3433b]203#include <rtems/bsd/bsd.h>
204
[ead7fdc]205static void
206network_ifconfig_lo0(void)
[4c3433b]207{
[ead7fdc]208        int exit_code;
209        char *lo0[] = {
210                "ifconfig",
211                "lo0",
212                "inet",
213                "127.0.0.1",
214                "netmask",
215                "255.255.255.0",
216                NULL
217        };
218        char *lo0_inet6[] = {
219                "ifconfig",
220                "lo0",
221                "inet6",
222                "::1",
223                "prefixlen",
224                "128",
225                NULL
226        };
227
228        exit_code = rtems_bsd_command_ifconfig(RTEMS_BSD_ARGC(lo0), lo0);
229        assert(exit_code == EX_OK);
230
231        exit_code = rtems_bsd_command_ifconfig(RTEMS_BSD_ARGC(lo0_inet6), lo0_inet6);
232        assert(exit_code == EX_OK);
233}
234
235void
236network_init(void)
237{
238        rtems_status_code sc;
[4c3433b]239
[ead7fdc]240        sc = rtems_bsd_initialize();
241        assert(sc == RTEMS_SUCCESSFUL);
242
243        network_ifconfig_lo0();
[4c3433b]244}
245-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
246
[ead7fdc]247This performs the basic network stack initialization with a loopback interface.
248Further initialization must be done using the standard BSD network
249configuration commands
250http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=ifconfig&apropos=0&sektion=8&manpath=FreeBSD+9.2-RELEASE&arch=default&format=html[IFCONFIG(8)]
251using `rtems_bsd_command_ifconfig()` and
252http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=route&apropos=0&sektion=8&manpath=FreeBSD+9.2-RELEASE&arch=default&format=html[ROUTE(8)]
253using `rtems_bsd_command_route()`.  For an example please have a look at
254`testsuite/include/rtems/bsd/test/default-network-init.h`.
255
[91ea7ea]256=== Task Priorities and Stack Size ===
257
258The default task priority is 96 for the interrupt server task (name "IRQS"), 98
259for the timer server task (name "TIME") and 100 for all other tasks.  The
260application may provide their own implementation of the
261`rtems_bsd_get_task_priority()` function (for example in the module which calls
262`rtems_bsd_initialize()`) if different values are desired.
263
[33a15c3]264The task stack size is determined by the `rtems_bsd_get_task_stack_size()`
265function which may be provided by the application in case the default is not
266appropriate.
267
[5383ed4]268=== Size for Allocator Domains ===
269
270The size for an allocator domain can be specified via the
271`rtems_bsd_get_allocator_domain_size()` function.  The application may provide
272their own implementation of the `rtems_bsd_get_allocator_domain_size()`
273function (for example in the module which calls `rtems_bsd_initialize()`) if
274different values are desired.  The default size is 8MiB for all domains.
275
[4c3433b]276== Network Stack Features
277
278http://roy.marples.name/projects/dhcpcd/index[DHCPCD(8)]:: DHCP client
279
280https://developer.apple.com/library/mac/documentation/Networking/Reference/DNSServiceDiscovery_CRef/Reference/reference.html[dns_sd.h]:: DNS Service Discovery
281
282http://www.opensource.apple.com/source/mDNSResponder/mDNSResponder-320.10/mDNSCore/mDNSEmbeddedAPI.h[mDNS]:: Multi-Cast DNS
283
284http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=unix&sektion=4&apropos=0&manpath=FreeBSD+9.2-RELEASE[UNIX(4)]:: UNIX-domain protocol family
285
286http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=inet&sektion=4&apropos=0&manpath=FreeBSD+9.2-RELEASE[INET(4)]:: Internet protocol family
287
288http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=inet6&apropos=0&sektion=4&manpath=FreeBSD+9.2-RELEASE&arch=default&format=html[INET6(4)]:: Internet protocol version 6 family
289
290http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=tcp&apropos=0&sektion=4&manpath=FreeBSD+9.2-RELEASE&arch=default&format=html[TCP(4)]:: Internet Transmission Control Protocol
291
292http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=udp&apropos=0&sektion=4&manpath=FreeBSD+9.2-RELEASE&arch=default&format=html[UDP(4)]:: Internet User Datagram Protocol
293
294http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=route&sektion=4&apropos=0&manpath=FreeBSD+9.2-RELEASE[ROUTE(4)]:: Kernel packet forwarding database
295
296http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=bpf&apropos=0&sektion=4&manpath=FreeBSD+9.2-RELEASE&arch=default&format=html[BPF(4)]:: Berkeley Packet Filter
297
298http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=socket&apropos=0&sektion=2&manpath=FreeBSD+9.2-RELEASE&arch=default&format=html[SOCKET(2)]:: Create an endpoint for communication
299
300http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=kqueue&apropos=0&sektion=2&manpath=FreeBSD+9.2-RELEASE&arch=default&format=html[KQUEUE(2)]:: Kernel event notification mechanism
301
302http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=select&apropos=0&sektion=2&manpath=FreeBSD+9.2-RELEASE&arch=default&format=html[SELECT(2)]:: Synchronous I/O multiplexing
303
304http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=poll&apropos=0&sektion=2&manpath=FreeBSD+9.2-RELEASE&arch=default&format=html[POLL(2)]:: Synchronous I/O multiplexing
305
306http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=route&apropos=0&sektion=8&manpath=FreeBSD+9.2-RELEASE&arch=default&format=html[ROUTE(8)]:: Manually manipulate the routing tables
307
308http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=ifconfig&apropos=0&sektion=8&manpath=FreeBSD+9.2-RELEASE&arch=default&format=html[IFCONFIG(8)]:: Configure network interface parameters
309
310http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=netstat&apropos=0&sektion=1&manpath=FreeBSD+9.2-RELEASE&arch=default&format=html[NETSTAT(1)]:: Show network status
311
312http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=ping&apropos=0&sektion=8&manpath=FreeBSD+9.2-RELEASE&arch=default&format=html[PING(8)]:: Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts
313
314http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=ping6&apropos=0&sektion=8&manpath=FreeBSD+9.2-RELEASE&arch=default&format=html[PING6(8)]:: Send ICMPv6 ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts
315
316http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=sysctl&sektion=3&apropos=0&manpath=FreeBSD+9.2-RELEASE[SYSCTL(3)]:: Get or set system information
317
318http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=resolver&sektion=3&apropos=0&manpath=FreeBSD+9.2-RELEASE[RESOLVER(3)]:: Resolver routines
319
320http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=gethostbyname&sektion=3&apropos=0&manpath=FreeBSD+9.2-RELEASE[GETHOSTBYNAME(3)]:: Get network host entry
321
[43dc972]322== Network Interface Drivers
323
324=== Link Up/Down Events
325
326You can notifiy the application space of link up/down events in your network
327interface driver via the if_link_state_change(LINK_STATE_UP/LINK_STATE_DOWN)
328function.  The DHCPCD(8) client is a consumer of these events for example.
329Make sure that the interface flag IFF_UP and the interface driver flag
330IFF_DRV_RUNNING is set in case the link is up, otherwise ether_output() will
331return the error status ENETDOWN.
332
[e6405ea]333== Shell Commands
334
335=== HOSTNAME(1)
336
337In addition to the standard options the RTEMS version of the HOSTNAME(1)
338command supports the -m flag to set/get the multicast hostname of the
339mDNS resolver instance.  See also rtems_mdns_sethostname() and
340rtems_mdns_gethostname().
341
[613c341]342== Qemu
343
344Use the following script to set up a virtual network with three tap devices
345connected via one bridge device.
346
347-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
348#!/bin/sh -x
349
350user=`whoami`
351interfaces=(1 2 3)
352
353tap=qtap
354bri=qbri
355
356case $1 in
357        up)
358                sudo -i brctl addbr $bri
359                for i in ${interfaces[@]} ; do
360                        sudo -i tunctl -t $tap$i -u $user ;
361                        sudo -i ifconfig $tap$i up ;
362                        sudo -i brctl addif $bri $tap$i ;
363                done
364                sudo -i ifconfig $bri up
365                ;;
366        down)
367                for i in ${interfaces[@]} ; do
368                        sudo -i ifconfig $tap$i down ;
369                        sudo -i tunctl -d $tap$i ;
370                done
371                sudo -i ifconfig $bri down
372                sudo -i brctl delbr $bri
373                ;;
374esac
375-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
376
377Connect your Qemu instance to one of the tap devices, e.g.
378
379-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
380qemu-system-i386 -m 512 -boot a -cpu pentium3 \
381        -drive file=$HOME/qemu/pc386_fda,index=0,if=floppy,format=raw \
382        -drive file=fat:$HOME/qemu/hd,format=raw \
383        -net nic,model=e1000,macaddr=0e:b0:ba:5e:ba:11 \
384        -net tap,ifname=qtap1,script=no,downscript=no \
385        -nodefaults -nographic -serial stdio
386-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
387
[d6ad59d]388-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
389qemu-system-arm \
390        -serial null \
391        -serial mon:stdio \
392        -nographic \
393        -M xilinx-zynq-a9 \
394        -net nic,model=cadence_gem,macaddr=0e:b0:ba:5e:ba:11 \
395        -net tap,ifname=qtap1,script=no,downscript=no \
396        -m 256M \
397        -kernel build/arm-rtems4.12-xilinx_zynq_a9_qemu/media01.exe
398-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
399
[613c341]400Make sure that each Qemu instance uses its own MAC address to avoid an address
401conflict (or otherwise use it as a test).
402
[e78b3dc]403To connect the Qemu instances with your local network use the following
404(replace 'eth0' with the network interface of your host).
405
406-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
407ifconfig eth0 0.0.0.0
408brctl addif qbri eth0
409dhclient qbri
410-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
411
[39a650e]412=== VDE and QEMU
413
414On FreeBSD you can create VDE or the Virtual Distributed Ethernet to create a
415network environment that does not need to run qemu as root or needing to drop
416the tap's privileges to run qemu.
417
418VDE creates a software switch with a default of 32 ports which means a single
419kernel tap can support 32 qemu networking sessions.
420
421To use VDE you need to build qemu with VDE support. The RSB can detect a VDE
422plug and enable VDE support in qemu when building. On FreeBSD install the VDE
423support with:
424
425 # pkg install -u vde2
426
427Build qemu with the RSB.
428
429To network create a bridge and a tap. The network is 10.10.1.0/24. On FreeBSD
430add to your /etc/rc.conf:
431
432 cloned_interfaces="bridge0 tap0"
433 autobridge_interfaces="bridge0"
434 autobridge_bridge0="re0 tap0"
435 ifconfig_re0="up"
436 ifconfig_tap0="up"
437 ifconfig_bridge0="inet 10.1.1.2 netmask 255.255.255.0"
438 defaultrouter="10.10.1.1"
439
440Start the VDE switch as root:
441
442 # sysctl net.link.tap.user_open=1
443 # sysctl net.link.tap.up_on_open=1
444 # vde_switch -d -s /tmp/vde1 -M /tmp/mgmt1 -tap tap0 -m 660 --mgmtmode 660
445 # chmod 660 /dev/tap0
446
447You can connect to the VDE switch's management channel using:
448
449 $ vdeterm /tmp/mgmt1
450
451To run qemu:
452
453 $ qemu-system-arm \
454        -serial null \
455        -serial mon:stdio \
456        -nographic \
457        -M xilinx-zynq-a9 \
458        -net nic,model=cadence_gem,macaddr=0e:b0:ba:5e:ba:11 \
459        -net vde,id=vde0,sock=/tmp/vde1
460        -m 256M \
461        -kernel build/arm-rtems4.12-xilinx_zynq_a9_qemu/rcconf02.exe
462
[4c3433b]463== Issues and TODO
[e392fdb7]464
[36a16f5]465* PCI support on x86 uses a quick and dirty hack, see pci_reserve_map().
466
[8475e7a]467* Priority queues are broken with clustered scheduling.
468
[d652c3b]469* Per-CPU data should be enabled once the new stack is ready for SMP.
470
471* Per-CPU NETISR(9) should be enabled onece the new stack is ready for SMP.
472
[549488b]473* Multiple routing tables are not supported.  Every FIB value is set to zero
474  (= BSD_DEFAULT_FIB).
475
[cc5f4b2]476* Process identifiers are not supported.  Every PID value is set to zero
477  (= BSD_DEFAULT_PID).
478
[69b29a0]479* User credentials are not supported.  The following functions allow the
480  operation for everyone
481  - prison_equal_ip4(),
482  - chgsbsize(),
483  - cr_cansee(),
484  - cr_canseesocket() and
485  - cr_canseeinpcb().
486
[4c3433b]487* A basic USB functionality test that is known to work on Qemu is desirable.
[560eccf]488
[8f5adbc]489* Adapt generic IRQ PIC interface code to Simple Vectored Interrupt Model
[4517fa3]490  so that those architectures can use new TCP/IP and USB code.
[560eccf]491
[78e3181]492* freebsd-userspace/rtems/include/sys/syslog.h is a copy from the old
493  RTEMS TCP/IP stack. For some reason, the __printflike markers do not
494  compile in this environment. We may want to use the FreeBSD syslog.h
495  and get this addressed.
496
[8f5adbc]497* in_cksum implementations for architectures not supported by FreeBSD.
498  This will require figuring out where to put implementations that do
499  not originate from FreeBSD and are populated via the script.
[560eccf]500
[cdf6024]501* MAC support functions are not thread-safe ("freebsd/lib/libc/posix1e/mac.c").
502
[c14bb23]503* IFCONFIG(8): IEEE80211 support is disabled.  This module depends on a XML
504  parser and mmap().
505
[1bc2756]506* get_cyclecount(): The implementation is a security problem.
507
[e859231]508* What to do with the priority parameter present in the FreeBSD synchronization
[ea87228]509  primitives and the thread creation functions?
510
511* TASKQUEUE(9): Support spin mutexes.
[e859231]512
[3e29388]513* ZONE(9): Review allocator lock usage in rtems-bsd-chunk.c.
514
[0c9f27b]515* KQUEUE(2): Choose proper lock for global kqueue list.
516
[a9e26f5]517* TIMEOUT(9): Maybe use special task instead of timer server to call
518  callout_tick().
519
[c99816e]520* sysctl_handle_opaque(): Implement reliable snapshots.
521
[cae4d0a]522* PING6(8): What to do with SIGALARM?
523
[241fc32]524* <sys/param.h>: Update Newlib to use a MSIZE of 256.
525
[e10d1cd]526* BPF(4): Add support for zero-copy buffers.
527
[164c5f5]528* UNIX(4): Fix race conditions in the area of socket object and file node
529  destruction.  Add support for file descriptor transmission via control
530  messages.
531
[08c8588]532* PRINTF(9): Add support for log(), the %D format specifier is missing in the
533  normal printf() family.
534
[362782e]535* Why is the interrupt server used?  The BSD interrupt handlers can block on
536synchronization primitives like mutexes.  This is in contrast to RTEMS
537interrupt service routines.  The BSPs using the generic interrupt support must
538implement the `bsp_interrupt_vector_enable()` and
539`bsp_interrupt_vector_disable()` routines.  They normally enable/disable a
540particular interrupt source at the interrupt controller.  This can be used to
541implement the interrupt server.  The interrupt server is a task that wakes-up
542in case an associated interrupt happens.  The interrupt source is disabled in
543a generic interrupt handler that wakes-up the interrupt server task.   Once the
544postponed interrupt processing is performed in the interrupt server the
545interrupt source is enabled again.
546
[4517fa3]547* Convert all BSP linkcmds to use a linkcmds.base so the sections are
[560eccf]548easier to insert.
549
[86bc9a7]550* NIC Device Drivers
[78e3181]551- Only common PCI NIC drivers have been included in the initial set. These
552do not include any system on chip or ISA drivers.
553- PCI configuration probe does not appear to happen to determine if a
554NIC is in I/O or memory space. We have worked around this by using a
555static hint to tell the fxp driver the correct mode. But this needs to
556be addressed.
[4517fa3]557- The ISA drivers require more BSD infrastructure to be addressed. This was
[86bc9a7]558outside the scope of the initial porting effort.
559
[8f5adbc]560== FreeBSD Source
561
562You should be able to rely on FreebSD manual pages and documentation
563for details on the code itself.
564
565=== Automatically Generated FreeBSD Files
566
[4c3433b]567Some source and header files are automatically generated during the FreeBSD
568build process.  The `Makefile.todo` file performs this manually.  The should be
569included in `freebsd-to-rtems.py` script some time in the future.  For details,
570see also
571http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=kobj&sektion=9&apropos=0&manpath=FreeBSD+9.2-RELEASE[KOBJ(9)].
[8f5adbc]572
573=== Rules for Modifying FreeBSD Source
574
[a57dfa0]575Only add lines.  If your patch contains lines starting with a '-', then this is
576wrong.  Subtract code by added `#ifndef __rtems__`.  This makes merging easier
577in the future.  For example:
[8f5adbc]578
[4c3433b]579-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
580/* Global variables for the kernel. */
[8f5adbc]581
[4c3433b]582#ifndef __rtems__
583/* 1.1 */
584extern char kernelname[MAXPATHLEN];
585#endif /* __rtems__ */
[8f5adbc]586
[4c3433b]587extern int tick;                        /* usec per tick (1000000 / hz) */
588-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
[560eccf]589
[4c3433b]590-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
591#if defined(_KERNEL) || defined(_WANT_FILE)
592#ifdef __rtems__
593#include <rtems/libio_.h>
594#include <sys/fcntl.h>
595#endif /* __rtems__ */
596/*
597 * Kernel descriptor table.
598 * One entry for each open kernel vnode and socket.
599 *
600 * Below is the list of locks that protects members in struct file.
601 *
602 * (f) protected with mtx_lock(mtx_pool_find(fp))
603 * (d) cdevpriv_mtx
604 * none not locked
605 */
606-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
607
608-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
609extern int profprocs;                   /* number of process's profiling */
610#ifndef __rtems__
611extern volatile int ticks;
612#else /* __rtems__ */
613#include <rtems/score/watchdogimpl.h>
614#define ticks _Watchdog_Ticks_since_boot
615#endif /* __rtems__ */
[8f5adbc]616
[4c3433b]617#endif /* _KERNEL */
618-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
[455aa3a]619
[4c3433b]620Add nothing (even blank lines) before or after the `__rtems__` guards.  Always
[a57dfa0]621include a `__rtems__` in the guards to make searches easy, so use
622
623* `#ifndef __rtems__`,
624* `#ifdef __rtems__`,
625* `#else /* __rtems__ */`, and
626* `#endif /* __rtems__ */`.
627
[a971614]628The guards must start at the begin of the line.  Examples for wrong guards:
629
630-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
631static void
632guards_must_start_at_the_begin_of_the_line(int j)
633{
634
635        #ifdef __rtems__
636        return (j + 1);
637        #else /* __rtems__ */
638        return (j + 2);
639        #endif /* __rtems__ */
640}
641
642static void
643missing_rtems_comments_in_the_guards(int j)
644{
645
646#ifdef __rtems__
647        return (j + 3);
648#else
649        return (j + 4);
650#endif
651}
652-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
653
[7c77211]654The FreeBSD build and configuration system uses option header files, e.g.
655`#include "opt_xyz.h"` in an unmodified FreeBSD file.  This include is
656transformed by the import script into `#include <rtems/bsd/local/opt_xyz.h>`.  Do
657not disable option header includes via guards.  Instead, add an empty option
658header, e.g. `touch rtemsbsd/include/rtems/bsd/local/opt_xyz.h`.
659-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
660/* WRONG */
661#ifndef __rtems__
662#include <rtems/bsd/local/opt_xyz.h>
663#endif /* __rtems__ */
664-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
665
666In general, provide empty header files and do not guard includes.
[a971614]667
[a57dfa0]668For new code use
669http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=style&apropos=0&sektion=9&manpath=FreeBSD+9.2-RELEASE&arch=default&format=html[STYLE(9)].
[7c77211]670
[a57dfa0]671Do not format original FreeBSD code.
[455aa3a]672
[4c3433b]673== BSD Library Source
[455aa3a]674
[4c3433b]675=== What is in the Git Repository
[455aa3a]676
[4c3433b]677There is a self-contained kit with FreeBSD and RTEMS components pre-merged. The
[97c5024a]678Waf wscript in this kit is automatically generated.
[8f5adbc]679
[4c3433b]680Any changes to source in the `freebsd` directories will need to be merged
681upstream into our master FreeBSD checkout, the `freebsd-org` submodule.
[8f5adbc]682
[4c3433b]683The repository contains two FreeBSD source trees.  In the `freebsd` directory
684are the so called 'managed' FreeBSD sources used to build the BSD library.  The
685FreeBSD source in `freebsd-org` is the 'master' version.  The
686`freebsd-to-rtems.py` script is used to transfer files between the two trees.
687In general terms, if you have modified managed FreeBSD sources, you will need
688to run the script in 'revert' or 'reverse' mode using the `-R` switch.  This
689will copy the source back to your local copy of the master FreeBSD source so
690you can run `git diff` against the upstream FreeBSD source.  If you want to
691transfer source files from the master FreeBSD source to the manged FreeBSD
692sources, then you must run the script in 'forward' mode (the default).
[8f5adbc]693
694=== Organization
695
696The top level directory contains a few directories and files. The following
[4c3433b]697are important to understand
[8f5adbc]698
[4c3433b]699* `freebsd-to-rtems.py` - script to convert to and free FreeBSD and RTEMS trees,
[0f5dd1c]700* `create-kernel-namespace.sh` - script to create the kernel namespace header <machine/rtems-bsd-kernel-namespace.h,
[97c5024a]701* `wscript` - automatically generated,
[4c3433b]702* `freebsd/` - from FreeBSD by script,
703* `rtemsbsd/` - RTEMS specific implementations of FreeBSD kernel support routines,
704* `testsuite/` - RTEMS specific tests, and
705* `libbsd.txt` - documentation in Asciidoc.
[8f5adbc]706
[4c3433b]707== Moving Code Between Managed and Master FreeBSD Source
[e392fdb7]708
[4c3433b]709The script `freebsd-to-rtems.py` is used to copy code from FreeBSD to the
[c90c212]710rtems-libbsd tree and to reverse this process. This script attempts to
[e392fdb7]711automate this process as much as possible and performs some transformations
712on the FreeBSD code. Its command line arguments are shown below:
713
714----
715freebsd-to-rtems.py [args]
[97c5024a]716  -?|-h|--help      print this and exit
717  -d|--dry-run      run program but no modifications
718  -D|--diff         provide diff of files between trees
719  -e|--early-exit   evaluate arguments, print results, and exit
720  -m|--makefile     Warning: depreciated and will be removed
721  -b|--buildscripts just generate the build scripts
[f9798ad]722  -S|--stats        Print a statistics report
[97c5024a]723  -R|--reverse      default FreeBSD -> RTEMS, reverse that
[f9798ad]724  -r|--rtems        RTEMS Libbsd directory (default: '.')
725  -f|--freebsd      FreeBSD SVN directory (default: 'freebsd-org')
[97c5024a]726  -v|--verbose      enable verbose output mode
[e392fdb7]727----
728
729In its default mode of operation, freebsd-to-rtems.py is used to copy code
[c90c212]730from FreeBSD to the rtems-libbsd tree and perform transformations.  In forward
[97c5024a]731mode, the script may be requested to just generate the Waf script.
[e392fdb7]732
[4517fa3]733In "reverse mode", this script undoes those transformations and copies
734the source code back to the FreeBSD SVN tree. This allows us to do
[e392fdb7]735'svn diff', evaluate changes made by the RTEMS Project, and report changes
736back to FreeBSD upstream.
737
738In either mode, the script may be asked to perform a dry-run or be verbose.
739Also, in either mode, the script is also smart enough to avoid copying over
740files which have not changed. This means that the timestamps of files are
741not changed unless the contents change. The script will also report the
742number of files which changed. In verbose mode, the script will print
743the name of the files which are changed.
744
[9edacb6]745To add or update files in the RTEMS FreeBSD tree first run the 'reverse mode'
[1e8c93c]746and move the current set of patches FreeBSD. The script may warn you if a file
747is not present at the destination for the direction. This can happen as files
748not avaliable at the FreeBSD snapshot point have been specially added to the
749RTEMS FreeBSD tree. Warnings can also appear if you have changed the list of
750files in libbsd.py. The reverse mode will result in the FreeBSD having
751uncommitted changes. You can ignore these. Once the reverse process has
752finished edit libbsd.py and add any new files then run the forwad mode to bring
753those files into the RTEMS FreeBSD tree.
754
[e392fdb7]755The following is an example forward run with no changes.
756
757----
758$ ~/newbsd/git/libbsd-8.2/freebsd-to-rtems.py \
759    -r /home/joel/newbsd/git/libbsd-8.2 \
760    -f /home/joel/newbsd/libbsd/freebsd-8.2 -v
[1e8c93c]761Verbose:                yes (1)
[e392fdb7]762Dry Run:                no
763Only Generate Makefile: no
764RTEMS Directory:        /home/joel/newbsd/git/libbsd-8.2
765FreeBSD Directory:      /home/joel/newbsd/libbsd/freebsd-8.2
766Direction:              forward
767Generating into /home/joel/newbsd/git/libbsd-8.2
7680 files were changed.
769----
770
[7326d96]771The script may also be used to generate a diff in either forward or reverse
772direction.
773
[1e8c93c]774You can add more than one verbose option (-v) to the command line and get more
775detail and debug level information from the command.
776
[62c4755]777== FreeBSD version of imported files and directories
778
[de8a76d]779. *, trunk, 2017-04-04, 642b174daddbd0efd9bb5f242c43f4ab4db6869f.
[62c4755]780
[edf32f2]781== How to import code from FreeBSD
782
[62c4755]783. In case you import files from a special FreeBSD version, then update the list above.
[28c973a]784. Run `git status` and make sure your working directory is clean.
785. Run `./freebsd-to-rtems.py -R`
786. Run `./freebsd-to-rtems.py`
787. Run `git status` and make sure your working directory is clean.  If you see modified files, then the `freebsd-to-rtems.py` script needs to be fixed first.
788. Add the files to import to `libbsd.py`.
789. Run `./freebsd-to-rtems.py`
790. Immediately check in the imported files without the changes to `libbsd_waf.py`.  Do not touch the imported files yourself at this point.
791. Port the imported files to RTEMS.  See 'Rules for Modifying FreeBSD Source'.
792. Add a test to the testsuite if possible.
793. Run `./create-kernel-namespace.sh` if you imported kernel space headers.  Add only your new defines via `git add -p rtemsbsd/include/machine/rtems-bsd-kernel-namespace.h`.
794. Create one commit from this.
795
[f9798ad]796The -S or --stats option generates reports the changes we have made to
797FreeBSD. If the code has been reserved into the original FreeBSD tree it will
798show nothing has changed. To see what we have change:
799
800 $ cd freebsd-org
801 $ git checkout -- .
802 $ cd ..
803 $ ./freebsd-to-rtems.py -R -S -d
804
805The report lists the files change based on the opacity level. The opacity is a
806measure on how much of a file differs from the original FreeBSD source. The
807lower the value the more transparent the source file it.
808
[8c0eeba]809== Porting of userspace utilities
[f71cbd0]810
811The theory behind the described method is to put all BSS and initialized data
812objects into a named section. This section then will be saved before the code is
813executed and restored after it has finished. This method limits to a single
814threaded execution of the application but minimizes the necessary changes to the
815original FreeBSD code.
816
817. Import and commit the unchanged source files like described above.
818. Add the files to the libbsd.py and build them.
819. Check the sources for everything that can be made const. This type of patches
820  should go back to the upstream FreeBSD sources.
[8c0eeba]821. Move static variables out of functions if necessary (search for
822  "<TAB>static"). These patches most likely will not be accepted into FreeBSD.
823. Add a rtems_bsd_command_PROGNAME() wrapper function to the source file
824  containing the main function (e.g. PROGNAME = pfctl). For an example look at
825  `rtems_bsd_command_pfctl()` in `freebsd/sbin/pfctl/pfctl.c`.
826. You probably have to use getopt_r() instead of getopt(). Have a look at
827  `freebsd/sbin/pfctl/pfctl.c`.
828. Build the libbsd without optimization.
829. Use the `userspace-header-gen.py` to generate some necessary header
830  files. It will generate one `rtems-bsd-PROGNAME-MODULE-data.h` per object file, one
831  `rtems-bsd-PROGNAME-namespace.h` and one `rtems-bsd-PROGNAME-data.h`. To call
832  the script, you have to compile the objects and afterwards run the helper
833  script with a call similar to this one:
834  `python ./userspace-header-gen.py build/arm-rtems4.12-xilinx_zynq_a9_qemu/freebsd/sbin/pfctl/*.o -p pfctl`
835  Replace the name (given via -p option) by the name of the userspace tool. It
836  has to match the name that is used in the RTEMS linker set further below.
837. If you regenerated files that have already been generated, you may have to
838  remove RTEMS-specific names from the namespace. The defaults (linker set names
839  and rtems_bsd_program_xxx) should already be filtered.
840. Put the generated header files into the same folder like the source files.
841. Include `PROGNAME-rtems-bsd-namespace.h` at the top of each source file and
842  the `PROGNAME-rtems-bsd-MODULE-data.h` after the include section of the
843  corresponding source files.
844. Include `machine/rtems-bsd-program.h` at the top of the include block in each
845  source file.
[f71cbd0]846. Create one compilable commit.
847
[4c3433b]848== Initialization of the BSD Library
[455aa3a]849
[4c3433b]850The initialization of the BSD library is based on the FreeBSD SYSINIT(9)
[8a4f070]851infrastructure.  The key to initializing a system is to ensure that the desired
852device drivers are explicitly pulled into the linked application.  This plus
[4c3433b]853linking against the BSD library (`libbsd.a`) will pull in the necessary FreeBSD
[8a4f070]854infrastructure.
[455aa3a]855
[8a4f070]856The FreeBSD kernel is not a library like the RTEMS kernel.  It is a bunch of
857object files linked together.  If we have a library, then creating the
858executable is simple.  We begin with a start symbol and recursively resolve all
859references.  With a bunch of object files linked together we need a different
860mechanism.  Most object files don't know each other.  Lets say we have a driver
861module.  The rest of the system has no references to this driver module.  The
862driver module needs a way to tell the rest of the system: Hey, kernel I am
863here, please use my services!
[455aa3a]864
[8a4f070]865This registration of independent components is performed by SYSINIT(9) and
866specializations:
867
868http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=SYSINIT
869
870The SYSINIT(9) uses some global data structures that are placed in a certain
871section.  In the linker command file we need this:
872
[4c3433b]873-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
874.rtemsroset : {
875        KEEP (*(SORT(.rtemsroset.*)))
876}
877
878.rtemsrwset : {
879        KEEP (*(SORT(.rtemsrwset.*)))
880}
881-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
882
883This results for example in this executable layout:
884
885-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
886[...]
887 *(SORT(.rtemsroset.*))
888 .rtemsroset.bsd.modmetadata_set.begin
889                0x000000000025fe00        0x0 libbsd.a(rtems-bsd-init.o)
890                0x000000000025fe00                _bsd__start_set_modmetadata_set
891 .rtemsroset.bsd.modmetadata_set.content
892                0x000000000025fe00        0x8 libbsd.a(rtems-bsd-nexus.o)
893 .rtemsroset.bsd.modmetadata_set.content
894                0x000000000025fe08        0x4 libbsd.a(kern_module.o)
895[...]
896 .rtemsroset.bsd.modmetadata_set.content
897                0x000000000025fe68        0x4 libbsd.a(mii.o)
898 .rtemsroset.bsd.modmetadata_set.content
899                0x000000000025fe6c        0x4 libbsd.a(mii_bitbang.o)
900 .rtemsroset.bsd.modmetadata_set.end
901                0x000000000025fe70        0x0 libbsd.a(rtems-bsd-init.o)
902                0x000000000025fe70                _bsd__stop_set_modmetadata_set
903[...]
904.rtemsrwset     0x000000000030bad0      0x290
905 *(SORT(.rtemsrwset.*))
906 .rtemsrwset.bsd.sysinit_set.begin
907                0x000000000030bad0        0x0 libbsd.a(rtems-bsd-init.o)
908                0x000000000030bad0                _bsd__start_set_sysinit_set
909 .rtemsrwset.bsd.sysinit_set.content
910                0x000000000030bad0        0x4 libbsd.a(rtems-bsd-nexus.o)
911 .rtemsrwset.bsd.sysinit_set.content
912                0x000000000030bad4        0x8 libbsd.a(rtems-bsd-thread.o)
913 .rtemsrwset.bsd.sysinit_set.content
914                0x000000000030badc        0x4 libbsd.a(init_main.o)
915[...]
916 .rtemsrwset.bsd.sysinit_set.content
917                0x000000000030bd54        0x4 libbsd.a(frag6.o)
918 .rtemsrwset.bsd.sysinit_set.content
919                0x000000000030bd58        0x8 libbsd.a(uipc_accf.o)
920 .rtemsrwset.bsd.sysinit_set.end
921                0x000000000030bd60        0x0 libbsd.a(rtems-bsd-init.o)
922                0x000000000030bd60                _bsd__stop_set_sysinit_set
923[...]
924-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
925
926Here you can see, that some global data structures are collected into
[8a4f070]927continuous memory areas.  This memory area can be identified by start and stop
928symbols.  This constructs a table of uniform items.
929
930The low level FreeBSD code calls at some time during the initialization the
931mi_startup() function (machine independent startup).  This function will sort
932the SYSINIT(9) set and call handler functions which perform further
933initialization.  The last step is the scheduler invocation.
934
935The SYSINIT(9) routines are run in mi_startup() which is called by
936rtems_bsd_initialize().
937
938This is also explained in "The Design and Implementation of the FreeBSD
939Operating System" section 14.3 "Kernel Initialization".
940
941In RTEMS we have a library and not a bunch of object files.  Thus we need a way
942to pull-in the desired services out of the libbsd.  Here the
[4c3433b]943`rtems-bsd-sysinit.h` comes into play.  The SYSINIT(9) macros have been
944modified and extended for RTEMS in `<sys/kernel.h>`:
[8a4f070]945
[4c3433b]946-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
[8a4f070]947#ifndef __rtems__
[4c3433b]948#define C_SYSINIT(uniquifier, subsystem, order, func, ident)    \
949        static struct sysinit uniquifier ## _sys_init = {       \
950                subsystem,                                      \
951                order,                                          \
952                func,                                           \
953                (ident)                                         \
954        };                                                      \
955        DATA_SET(sysinit_set,uniquifier ## _sys_init)
[8a4f070]956#else /* __rtems__ */
[4c3433b]957#define SYSINIT_ENTRY_NAME(uniquifier)                          \
958        _bsd_ ## uniquifier ## _sys_init
959#define SYSINIT_REFERENCE_NAME(uniquifier)                      \
960        _bsd_ ## uniquifier ## _sys_init_ref
961#define C_SYSINIT(uniquifier, subsystem, order, func, ident)    \
962        struct sysinit SYSINIT_ENTRY_NAME(uniquifier) = {       \
963                subsystem,                                      \
964                order,                                          \
965                func,                                           \
966                (ident)                                         \
967        };                                                      \
968        RWDATA_SET(sysinit_set,SYSINIT_ENTRY_NAME(uniquifier))
969#define SYSINIT_REFERENCE(uniquifier)                           \
970        extern struct sysinit SYSINIT_ENTRY_NAME(uniquifier);   \
971        static struct sysinit const * const                     \
972        SYSINIT_REFERENCE_NAME(uniquifier) __used               \
973        = &SYSINIT_ENTRY_NAME(uniquifier)
974#define SYSINIT_MODULE_REFERENCE(mod)                           \
975        SYSINIT_REFERENCE(mod ## module)
976#define SYSINIT_DRIVER_REFERENCE(driver, bus)                   \
977        SYSINIT_MODULE_REFERENCE(driver ## _ ## bus)
978#define SYSINIT_DOMAIN_REFERENCE(dom)                           \
979        SYSINIT_REFERENCE(domain_add_ ## dom)
[8a4f070]980#endif /* __rtems__ */
[4c3433b]981-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
[8a4f070]982
983Here you see that the SYSINIT(9) entries are no longer static.  The
[4c3433b]984\*_REFERENCE() macros will create references to the corresponding modules which
[8a4f070]985are later resolved by the linker.  The application has to provide an object
986file with references to all required FreeBSD modules.
987
988The FreeBSD device model is quite elaborated (with follow-ups):
989
990http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=driver
991
992The devices form a tree with the Nexus device at a high-level.  This Nexus
993device is architecture specific in FreeBSD.  In RTEMS we have our own Nexus
[4c3433b]994device, see `rtemsbsd/bsp/bsp-bsd-nexus-devices.c`.
[00ee241]995
996=== SYSCTL_NODE Example
997
998During development, we had an undefined reference to
999_bsd_sysctl__net_children that we had trouble tracking down. Thanks to
1000Chris Johns, we located it. He explained how to read SYSCTL_NODE
1001definitions. This line from freebsd/netinet/in_proto.c is attempting
1002to add the "inet" node to the parent node "_net".
1003
1004----
1005SYSCTL_NODE(_net,      PF_INET,         inet,   CTLFLAG_RW, 0,
1006        "Internet Family");
1007----
1008
1009Our problem was that we could not find where _bsd_sysctl__net_children
1010was defined. Chris suggested that when in doubt compile with -save-temps
1011and look at the preprocessed .i files. But he did not need that. He
1012explained that this the symbol name _bsd_sysctl__net_children was
1013automatically generated by a SYSCTL_NODE as follows:
1014
1015* _bsd_ - added by RTEMS modifications to SYSCTL_NODE macro
1016* sysctl_ - boilerplace added by SYSCTL_NODE macro
1017* "" - empty string for parent node
1018* net - name of SYSCTL_NODE
1019* children - added by SYSCTL macros
[4517fa3]1020
[00ee241]1021This was all generated by a support macro declaring the node as this:
1022
1023----
1024struct sysctl_oid_list SYSCTL_NODE_CHILDREN(parent, name);
1025----
1026
[4517fa3]1027Given this information, we located this SYSCTL_NODE declaration in
[00ee241]1028kern/kern_mib.c
1029
1030----
1031SYSCTL_NODE(, CTL_KERN,   kern,   CTLFLAG_RW, 0,
1032        "High kernel, proc, limits &c");
1033----
1034
[c03e095]1035== Core FreeBSD APIs and RTEMS Replacements ==
1036
1037=== SX(9) (Shared/exclusive locks) ===
1038
1039http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=sx
1040
1041Binary semaphores (this neglects the ability to allow shared access).
1042
1043=== MUTEX(9) (Mutual exclusion) ===
1044
1045http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=mutex
1046
1047Binary semaphores (not recursive mutexes are not supported this way).
1048
1049=== RWLOCK(9) (Reader/writer lock) ===
1050
1051http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=rwlock
1052
1053POSIX r/w lock.
1054
1055=== RMLOCK(9) (Reader/writer lock optimized for mostly read access patterns) ===
1056
[5ab1e1d]1057Note:  This object was implemented as a wrapper for RWLOCK in the rm_lock header file.
1058
[c03e095]1059http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=rmlock
1060
1061POSIX r/w lock.
1062
1063=== CONDVAR(9) (Condition variables) ===
1064
1065http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=condvar
1066
1067POSIX condition variables with modifications (hack).
1068
1069=== CALLOUT(9) (Timer functions) ===
1070
1071http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=callout
1072
1073Timer server.
1074
1075=== TASKQUEUE(9) (Asynchronous task execution) ===
1076
1077http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=taskqueue
1078
1079TBD.
1080
1081=== KTHREAD(9), KPROC(9) (Tasks) ===
1082
1083http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=kthread
1084
1085http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=kproc
1086
1087Tasks.
1088
1089=== ZONE(9) (Zone allocator) ===
1090
1091http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=zone
1092
1093TBD.
1094
1095=== devfs (Device file system) ===
1096
[69355c3]1097There is a minimal implementation based on IMFS. The mount point is fixed to
1098"/dev". Note that the devfs is only used by the cdev subsystem. cdev has been
1099adapted so that the full path (including the leading "/dev") is given to devfs.
1100This saves some copy operations.
1101
1102devfs_create() first creates the full path and then creates an IMFS generic node
1103for the device.
1104
1105TBD: remove empty paths on devfs_destroy().
[c03e095]1106
1107=== psignal (Signals) ===
1108
1109TBD.  Seems to be not needed.
1110
1111=== poll, select ===
1112
1113TBD.  Seems to be not needed.
1114
1115=== RMAN(9) (Resource management) ===
1116
1117http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=rman
1118
1119TBD.  Seems to be not needed.
1120
1121=== DEVCLASS(9), DEVICE(9), DRIVER(9), MAKE_DEV(9) (Device management) ===
1122
1123http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=devclass
1124
1125http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=device
1126
1127http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=driver
1128
1129http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=make_dev
1130
1131Use FreeBSD implementation as far as possible.  FreeBSD has a nice API for
1132dynamic device handling.  It may be interesting for RTEMS to use this API
1133internally in the future.
1134
1135=== BUS_SPACE(9), BUS_DMA(9) (Bus and DMA access) ===
1136
1137http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=bus_space
1138
1139http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=bus_dma
1140
1141Likely BSP dependent.  A default implementation for memory mapped linear access
1142is easy to provide.  The current heap implementation supports all properties
1143demanded by bus_dma (including the boundary constraint).
[5ab1e1d]1144
[7586492]1145== RTEMS Replacements by File Description ==
[5ab1e1d]1146
1147Note:  Files with a status of USB are used by the USB test and have at least
1148been partially tested.  If they contain both USB and Nic, then they are used
1149by both and MAY contain methods that have not been tested yet.  Files that
1150are only used by the Nic test are the most suspect.
1151
[fb4c8a9]1152----
[5ab1e1d]1153rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-assert.c
1154FreeBSD File:           rtems-bsd-config.h redefines BSD_ASSERT.
1155Description:            This file contains the support method rtems_bsd_assert_func().
1156Status:                 USB, Nic
1157
1158rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-autoconf.c
[4517fa3]1159FreeBSD File:           FreeBSD has BSP specific autoconf.c
[5ab1e1d]1160Description:            This file contains configuration methods that are used to setup the system.
[4517fa3]1161Status:                 USB
[5ab1e1d]1162
1163rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-bus-dma.c
1164FreeBSD File:           FreeBSD has BSP specific busdma_machdep.c
[4517fa3]1165Description:
1166Status:                 USB, Nic
[5ab1e1d]1167
[4517fa3]1168rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-bus-dma-mbuf.c
[5ab1e1d]1169FreeBSD File:           FreeBSD has BSP specific busdma_machdep.c
[4517fa3]1170Description:
[5ab1e1d]1171Status:                 Nic
1172
[4517fa3]1173rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-callout.c
[5ab1e1d]1174FreeBSD File:           kern/kern_timeout.c
[4517fa3]1175Description:
1176Status:                 USB, Nic
[5ab1e1d]1177
1178rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-cam.c
1179FreeBSD File:           cam/cam_sim.c
[4517fa3]1180Description:
1181Status:                 USB
[5ab1e1d]1182
[4517fa3]1183rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-condvar.c
[5ab1e1d]1184FreeBSD File:           kern/kern_condvar.c
[4517fa3]1185Description:
1186Status:                 USB
[5ab1e1d]1187
1188rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-copyinout.c
1189FreeBSD File:           bsp specific copyinout.c )
1190Description:            Note: The FreeBSD file is split with some methods being in rtems-bsd-support
[4517fa3]1191Status:                 Nic
[5ab1e1d]1192
1193rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-delay.c
1194FreeBSD File:           bsp specific file with multiple names
[4517fa3]1195Description:
1196Status:                 USB, Nic
[5ab1e1d]1197
[4517fa3]1198rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-descrip.c
[5ab1e1d]1199FreeBSD File:           kern/kern_descrip.c
[4517fa3]1200Description:
1201Status:                 Nic
[5ab1e1d]1202
[4517fa3]1203rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-generic.c
[5ab1e1d]1204FreeBSD File:           kern/sys_generic.c
[4517fa3]1205Description:
1206Status:                 Nic
[5ab1e1d]1207
[4517fa3]1208rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-init.c
[5ab1e1d]1209FreeBSD File:           N/A
[4517fa3]1210Description:
1211Status:                 USB, Nic
[5ab1e1d]1212
1213rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-init-with-irq.c
1214FreeBSD File:           N/A
[4517fa3]1215Description:
1216Status:                 USB, Nic
[5ab1e1d]1217
1218rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-jail.c
1219FreeBSD File:           kern/kern_jail.c
[4517fa3]1220Description:
1221Status:                 USB, Nic
[5ab1e1d]1222
1223rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-lock.c
1224FreeBSD File:           kern/subr_lock.c
[4517fa3]1225Description:
1226Status:                 USB, Nic
[5ab1e1d]1227
[4517fa3]1228rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-log.c
[5ab1e1d]1229FreeBSD File:           kern/subr_prf.c
[4517fa3]1230Description:
1231Status:                 Nic
[5ab1e1d]1232
1233rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-malloc.c
1234FreeBSD File:           kern/kern_malloc.c
[4517fa3]1235Description:
1236Status:                 USB, Nic
[5ab1e1d]1237
1238rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-mutex.c
1239FreeBSD File:           kern/kern_mutex.c
[4517fa3]1240Description:
1241Status:                 USB, Nic
[5ab1e1d]1242
1243rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-newproc.c
1244FreeBSD File:           N/A
[4517fa3]1245Description:
1246Status:                 Nic
[5ab1e1d]1247
1248rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-nexus.c
1249FreeBSD File:           bsp specific nexus.c
[4517fa3]1250Description:
1251Status:                 USB
[5ab1e1d]1252
[4517fa3]1253rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-panic.c
[5ab1e1d]1254FreeBSD File:           boot/common/panic.c
[4517fa3]1255Description:
1256Status:                 USB, Nic
[5ab1e1d]1257
[4517fa3]1258rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-rwlock.c
[5ab1e1d]1259FreeBSD File:           kern_rwlock.c
[4517fa3]1260Description:
1261Status:                 USB, Nic
[5ab1e1d]1262
[4517fa3]1263rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-shell.c
[5ab1e1d]1264FreeBSD File:           N/A
[4517fa3]1265Description:
1266Status:                 USB
[5ab1e1d]1267
[4517fa3]1268rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-signal.c
[5ab1e1d]1269FreeBSD File:           kern/kern_sig.c
[4517fa3]1270Description:
1271Status:                 Nic
[5ab1e1d]1272
[4517fa3]1273rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-smp.c
[5ab1e1d]1274FreeBSD File:           N/A
[4517fa3]1275Description:
1276Status:                 Nic
[5ab1e1d]1277
[4517fa3]1278rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-support.c
1279FreeBSD File:           bsp specific copyinout.c
[5ab1e1d]1280Description:            Note: the FreeBSD file is split with some methods being in rtems-bsd-copyinout.
[4517fa3]1281Status:                 USB, Nic
[5ab1e1d]1282
[4517fa3]1283rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-sx.c
[5ab1e1d]1284FreeBSD File:           kern/kern_sx.c
[4517fa3]1285Description:            Status: USB, Nic
[5ab1e1d]1286
[4517fa3]1287rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-synch.c
[5ab1e1d]1288FreeBSD File:           kern/kern_synch.c
[4517fa3]1289Description:
1290Status:                 USB, Nic
[5ab1e1d]1291
[4517fa3]1292rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-syscalls.c
[5ab1e1d]1293FreeBSD File:           User API for kern/uipc_syscalls.c
[4517fa3]1294Description:
1295Status:                 Nic
[5ab1e1d]1296
[4517fa3]1297rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-sysctlbyname.c
[5ab1e1d]1298FreeBSD File:           User API for sysctlbyname(3)
[4517fa3]1299Description:
1300Status:
[5ab1e1d]1301
[4517fa3]1302rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-sysctl.c
[5ab1e1d]1303FreeBSD File:           User API for sysctl(8)
[4517fa3]1304Description:
1305Status:
[5ab1e1d]1306
[4517fa3]1307rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-sysctlnametomib.c
[5ab1e1d]1308FreeBSD File:           User API for sysctlnametomib
[4517fa3]1309Description:
1310Status:
[5ab1e1d]1311
[4517fa3]1312rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-taskqueue.c
[5ab1e1d]1313FreeBSD File:           kern/subr_taskqueue.c
[4517fa3]1314Description:
1315Status:                 Nic
[5ab1e1d]1316
[4517fa3]1317rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-thread.c
[5ab1e1d]1318FreeBSD File:           kern/kern_kthread.c
[4517fa3]1319Description:
1320Status:                 USB, Nic
[5ab1e1d]1321
[4517fa3]1322rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-timeout.c
[5ab1e1d]1323FreeBSD File:           kern/kern_timeout.c
[4517fa3]1324Description:
1325Status:                 Nic
[5ab1e1d]1326
[4517fa3]1327rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-timesupport.c
[5ab1e1d]1328FreeBSD File:           kern/kern_clock.c
[4517fa3]1329Description:
1330Status:                 Nic
[5ab1e1d]1331
[4517fa3]1332rtems-libbsd File:      rtems-bsd-vm_glue.c
[5ab1e1d]1333FreeBSD File:           vm/vm_glue.c
[4517fa3]1334Description:
1335Status:                 USB, Nic
[fb4c8a9]1336----
1337
1338== Notes by File ==
[7586492]1339
[fb4c8a9]1340altq_subr.c - Arbitrary choices were made in this file that RTEMS would
1341not support tsc frequency change.  Additionally, the clock frequency
1342for machclk_freq is always measured for RTEMS.
1343
1344conf.h - In order to add make_dev and destroy_dev, variables in the cdev
1345structure that were not being used were conditionally compiled out. The
1346capability of supporting children did not appear to be needed and was
1347not implemented in the rtems version of these routines.
[4517fa3]1348
[7586492]1349== NICs Status ==
1350
[fb4c8a9]1351----
[7586492]1352Driver                  Symbol                          Status
1353======                  ======                          ======
[4517fa3]1354RealTek                 _bsd_re_pcimodule_sys_init      Links
[7586492]1355EtherExpress            _bsd_fxp_pcimodule_sys_init     Links
1356DEC tulip               _bsd_dc_pcimodule_sys_init      Links
1357Broadcom BCM57xxx       _bsd_bce_pcimodule_sys_init     Links
1358Broadcom BCM4401        _bsd_bfe_pcimodule_sys_init     Links
1359Broadcom BCM570x        _bsd_bge_pcimodule_sys_init     Needs Symbols (A)
[fb4c8a9]1360E1000 IGB               _bsd_igb_pcimodule_sys_init     Links
1361E1000 EM                _bsd_em_pcimodule_sys_init      Links
[b9fb1ef]1362Cadence                 ?                               Links, works.
[fb4c8a9]1363----
[7586492]1364
[1e8c93c]1365To add a NIC edit rtemsbsd/include/bsp/nexus-devices.h and add the driver
1366reference to the architecture and/or BSP. For example to add the RealTek driver
1367add:
1368
1369SYSINIT_DRIVER_REFERENCE(re, pci);
1370
1371and to add the MII PHY driver add:
1372
1373SYSINIT_DRIVER_REFERENCE(rge, miibus);
1374
1375The PC BSP has these entries.
1376
[7586492]1377Symbols (A)
1378         pci_get_vpd_ident
[4517fa3]1379
[b9fb1ef]1380=== Cadence ===
1381
1382The cadence driver works on the Xilinx Zynq platform. The hardware checksum
1383support works on real hardware but does not seem to be supported on qemu
1384therefore the default state is to disable TXCSUM and RXCSUM and this can be
1385enabled from the shell with:
1386
1387  # ifconfig cgem0 rxcsum txcsum
1388
1389or with an ioctl call to the network interface driver with SIOCSIFCAP and the
1390mask IFCAP_TXCSUM and IFCAP_RXCSUM set.
1391
[f1941b2]1392== PF (Firewall) ==
1393
1394It is possible to use PF as a firewall. See
1395[https://www.freebsd.org/doc/handbook/firewalls-pf.html] for details on the
1396range of functions and for how to configure the firewall.
1397
1398The following is necessary to use PF on RTEMS:
1399
1400- You have to provide a +/etc/pf.os+ file. The firewall can use it for passive
1401  OS fingerprinting. If you don't want to use this feature, the file may contain
1402  nothing except a line of comment (for example "# empty").
1403
1404- If some filters use protocol names (like tcp or udp) you have to provide a
1405  +/etc/protocols+ file.
1406
1407- If some filters use service names (like ssh or http) you have to provide a
1408  +/etc/services+ file.
1409
1410- Create a rule file (normally +/etc/pf.conf+). See the FreeBSD manual for the
1411  syntax.
1412
[6cfb5c2]1413- Load the rule file using the pfctl command and enable pf. Please note that the
1414  pfctl command needs a lot of stack. You should use at least
1415  RTEMS_MINIMUM_STACK_SIZE + 8192 Bytes of stack. An example initialisation can
1416  look like follows:
[f1941b2]1417
1418----
1419        int exit_code;
1420        char *params[] = {
1421                "pfctl",
1422                "-f",
1423                "/etc/pf.conf",
1424                "-e",
1425                NULL
1426        };
1427
1428        exit_code = rtems_bsd_command_pfctl(ARGC(params), params);
1429        assert(exit_code == EXIT_SUCCSESS);
1430----
1431
1432=== Known restrictions ===
1433
1434- Currently PF on RTEMS always uses the configuration for memory restricted
1435  systems (on FreeBSD that means systems with less than 100 MB RAM). This is
1436  fixed in +pfctl_init_options()+.
1437
[99dc0d7]1438== Problems to report to FreeBSD ==
1439
1440The MMAP_NOT_AVAILABLE define is inverted on its usage.  When it is
[4517fa3]1441defined the mmap method is called. Additionally, it is not used
[99dc0d7]1442thoroughly. It is not used in the unmap portion of the source.
[808a6b2]1443The file rec_open.c uses the define MMAP_NOT_AVAILABLE to wrap
1444the call to mmap and file rec_close.c uses the munmap method.
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