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Development Hosts

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.. index:: Hosts

RTEMS applications are developed using cross-development tools running on a host computer, typically your desktop or a special build server. All RTEMS tools and runtime libraries are built from source on your host machine. The RTEMS Project does not maintain binary builds of the tools. This may appear be the opposite to what you normally experience with host operating systems, and it is, however this approach works well. RTEMS is not a host operating system and it is not a distrbution. Providing binary packages for every possible host operating system is too big a task for the RTEMS Project and it is not a good use of core developer time. Their time is better spent making RTEMS better and faster.

Developer Computer

The rule for selecting a computer for a developer is more is better but we do understand there are limits. Projects set up different configurations and what is described here is not an approved set up, rather it is a guide. Some projects have a suitable development machine per developer while others set up a tightly controlled central build server. RTEMS is flexible and lets you engineer a development environment that suites you. The basic specs are:

  • Multicore processor
  • 8G bytes RAM
  • 256G harddisk

RTEMS makes no demands on graphics.

If you are using a VM or your host computer is not a fast modern machine do not be concerned. The tools may take longer to build than faster hardware however building tools is something you do once. Once the tools and RTEMS is built all your time can be spent writing and developing your application. Over an hour does happen and for the ARM architecture with all BSPs it can be many hours.

Host Software

A wide range of host operating systems and hardware can be used. The host operating systems supported are:

  • Linux
  • FreeBSD
  • NetBSD
  • Apple OS X
  • Windows
  • Solaris

The functionality on a POSIX operating such as Linux and FreeBSD is similar and most features on Windows are supported but you are best to ask on the :r:list:`users` if you have a specific question.

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We recommend you maintain your operating system by installing any updates.

POSIX Hosts

POSIX hosts are most Unix operating systems such as Linux, FreeBSD and NetBSD. RTEMS development works well on Unix and can scale from a single user and a desktop machine to a team with decentralised or centralised development infrastructure. The RTEMS project provides you with the development tools and aids to help you create an environment that matches your project's needs. The RTEMS Project's aim is to give you complete freedom to decide on the languages used in your project, which version control system, and the build system for your application.

The following are a few ways you can set up a suitable environment. You are not limited to what is present here. A common factor that defines the final location of tools and projects is the place you have suitable storage. The following set ups assume suitable disk space and disk performance.

Administrator Access

You either have root access to your host development machine or you do not. Some users are given hardware that is centrally managed. If you do not have root access you can create your work environment in your home directory. You could use a prefix of :file:`$HOME/development/rtems` or :file:`$HOME/rtems`. Note, the $HOME environment variable can be substituted with ~.

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RTEMS Tools and packages do not require root access to be built and we encourage you to not build the tools as root. If you need to control write access then it is best to manage this with groups assigned to users.

If you have root access you can decide to install the tools under any suitable prefix. This may depend on the hardware in your host development machine. If the machine is a centralised build server the prefix may be used to separate production versions from the test versions and as just discussed the prefix paths may have restricted access rights to only those who manage and have configuration control of the machine.

Apple OS X

Apple's OS X is fully supported. You need to download and install a recent version of the Apple developer application Xcode. Xocde is available in the App Store. Make sure you install the Command Line Tools add on available for download within Xcode and once installed open a Terminal shell and enter the command cc and accept the license agreement.

The normal prefix when working on OS X as a user is under your home directory. Prefixes of :file:`$HOME/development/rtems` or :file:`$HOME/rtems` are suitable.

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Microsoft Windows

RTEMS supports Windows as a development host and the tools for most architectures are available. The RTEMS Project relies on the GNU tools for compilers and debuggers and we use the simulators that come with GDB and QEMU. The Windows support for these tools varies and the RTEMS Project is committed to helping the open source community improve the Windows experience. If something is not working or supported please email the :r:list:`users`.

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The RTEMS Project's Windows tools are native Windows executables giving the user the best possible experience on Windows. Native Windows programs use the standard Windows DLLs and paths. Integration with standard Windows integrated development tools such as editors is straight forward. POSIX emulation environments such as Cygwin and the MSYS2 shell have special executables that require a POSIX emulation DLL and these emulation DLLs add an extra layer of complexity as well as a performance over-head. The RTEMS Project uses these POSIX emulation shells to run configure scripts that come with various open source packages such as gcc so they form an important and valued part of the environment we describe here. The output of this procedure forms the tools you use during your application development and they do not depend on the emulation DLLs.

The performance of the compiler is as good as you can have on Windows and the performance compiling a single file will be similar to that on a host like Linux or FreeBSD given the same hardware. Building the tools from source is much slower on Windows because POSIX shells and related tools are used and the POSIX emulation overhead it much much slower than a native POSIX operating system like Linux and FreeBSD. This overhead is only during the building of the tools and the RTEMS kernel and if you use a suitable build system that is native to Windows your application development should be similar to other operating systems.

Building is known to work on Windows 7 64bit Professional and Windows 10.

Path Length

Windows path length is limited and can cause problems when building the tools. The standard Windows API has a MAX_PATH length of 260 characters. This can effect some of the tools used by RTEMS. It is recommended you keep the top level directories as short as possible when building the RTEMS tools and you should also keep an eye on the path length when developing your application. The RTEMS built tools can handle much longer path lengths however some of the GNU tools such as those in the binutils package cannot.

The release packages of the RSB when unpacked have top level file names that are too big to build RTEMS. You need to change or rename that path to something smaller to build. This is indicated in :ref:`released-version`.

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Parallel Builds with Make

The MSYS2 GNU make has problems when using the jobs option. The RSB defaults to automatically using as many cores as the host machine has. To get a successful build on Windows it is recommended you add the --jobs=none option to all RSB build set commands.

POSIX Support

Building the RTEMS compilers, debugger, the RTEMS kernel and a number of other 3rd party packages requires a POSIX environment. On Windows you can use Cygwin or MSYS2. This document focuses on MSYS2. It is smaller than Cygwin and comes with the Arch Linux package manager pacman.

MSYS2 provides MinGW64 support as well as a POSIX shell called MSYS2. The MinGW64 compiler and related tools produce 64bit native Windows executables. The shell is a standard Bourne shell and the MSYS2 environment is a stripped Cygwin shell with enough support to run the various configure scripts needed to build the RTEMS tools and the RTEMS kernel.

MSYS2 is built around the pacman packaging tool. This makes MSYS2 a distribution and that is a welcome feature on Windows. You get a powerful tool to manage your development environment on Windows.

Python

We need Python to build the tools as the RSB is written in Python and we need suitable Python libraries to link to GDB as RTEMS makes use of GDB's Python support. This places specific demands on the Python we need installed and available and MSYS2 provides suitable Python versions we can use. You need to make sure you have the correct type and version of Python installed.

We cannot use the Python executables created by the Python project (python.org) as they are built by Microsoft's C (MSC) compiler. Linking the MSC Python libraries with the MinGW64 executables is not easy and MSYS provided us with a simple solution so we do not support linking MSC libraries.

MSYS2 provides two types and versions of Python executables, MinGW and MSYS and Python version 2 and 3. For Windows we need the MinGW executable so we have suitables libraries and we have to have Python version 2 because on Windows GDB only builds with Python2.

You also need to install the MSYS version of Python along with the MinGW64 Python2 package. The MSYS Python is version 3 and the RSB can support version 2 and 3 of Python and it helps handle some of the long paths building GCC can generate.

Installing MSYS2

MSYS2 is installed on a new machine using the MSYS2 installer found on https://msys2.github.io/. Please select the x86_64 variant for 64bit support. Run the installer following the 7 steps listed on the page.

MSYS2 uses the pacman package manager. The Arch Linux project has detailed documentation on how to use pacman. What is shown here is a just few examples of what you can do.

Open a 64bit MSYS shell from the Start Menu:

MSYS2 64bit Shell Start Menu

The packages we require are:

  • python
  • mingw-w64-x86_64-python2
  • mingw-w64-x86_64-gcc
  • git
  • bison
  • cvs
  • diffutils
  • make
  • patch
  • tar
  • texinfo
  • unzip
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.. note::

The actual output provided may vary due to changes in the dependent packages or newer package versions.

Install the packages using pacman:

~
$ pacman -S python mingw-w64-x86_64-python2 mingw-w64-x86_64-gcc \
bison cvs diffutils git make patch tar texinfo unzip
resolving dependencies...
looking for conflicting packages...
Packages (74) db-5.3.28-2  expat-2.1.0-2  gdbm-1.11-3  heimdal-1.5.3-8
              libgdbm-1.11-3  mingw-w64-x86_64-binutils-2.26-21
              mingw-w64-x86_64-bzip2-1.0.6-5
              mingw-w64-x86_64-ca-certificates-20150426-2
              mingw-w64-x86_64-crt-git-5.0.0.4627.03684c4-1
              mingw-w64-x86_64-expat-2.1.0-6  mingw-w64-x86_64-gcc-libs-5.3.0-2
              mingw-w64-x86_64-gdbm-1.11-3  mingw-w64-x86_64-gettext-0.19.6-2
              mingw-w64-x86_64-gmp-6.1.0-1
              mingw-w64-x86_64-headers-git-5.0.0.4627.53be55d-1
              mingw-w64-x86_64-isl-0.15-1  mingw-w64-x86_64-libffi-3.2.1-3
              mingw-w64-x86_64-libiconv-1.14-5
              mingw-w64-x86_64-libsystre-1.0.1-2
              mingw-w64-x86_64-libtasn1-4.7-1
              mingw-w64-x86_64-libtre-git-r122.c2f5d13-4
              mingw-w64-x86_64-libwinpthread-git-5.0.0.4573.628fdbf-1
              mingw-w64-x86_64-mpc-1.0.3-2  mingw-w64-x86_64-mpfr-3.1.3.p0-2
              mingw-w64-x86_64-ncurses-6.0.20160220-2
              mingw-w64-x86_64-openssl-1.0.2.g-1
              mingw-w64-x86_64-p11-kit-0.23.1-3
              mingw-w64-x86_64-readline-6.3.008-1  mingw-w64-x86_64-tcl-8.6.5-1
              mingw-w64-x86_64-termcap-1.3.1-2  mingw-w64-x86_64-tk-8.6.5-1
              mingw-w64-x86_64-windows-default-manifest-6.4-2
              mingw-w64-x86_64-winpthreads-git-5.0.0.4573.628fdbf-1
              mingw-w64-x86_64-zlib-1.2.8-9  openssh-7.1p2-1  perl-5.22.0-2
              perl-Authen-SASL-2.16-2  perl-Convert-BinHex-1.123-2
              perl-Encode-Locale-1.04-1  perl-Error-0.17024-1
              perl-File-Listing-6.04-2  perl-HTML-Parser-3.71-3
              perl-HTML-Tagset-3.20-2  perl-HTTP-Cookies-6.01-2
              perl-HTTP-Daemon-6.01-2  perl-HTTP-Date-6.02-2
              perl-HTTP-Message-6.06-2  perl-HTTP-Negotiate-6.01-2
              perl-IO-Socket-SSL-2.016-1  perl-IO-stringy-2.111-1
              perl-LWP-MediaTypes-6.02-2  perl-MIME-tools-5.506-1
              perl-MailTools-2.14-1  perl-Net-HTTP-6.09-1
              perl-Net-SMTP-SSL-1.02-1  perl-Net-SSLeay-1.70-1
              perl-TermReadKey-2.33-1  perl-TimeDate-2.30-2  perl-URI-1.68-1
              perl-WWW-RobotRules-6.02-2  perl-libwww-6.13-1  vim-7.4.1468-1
              bison-3.0.4-1  cvs-1.11.23-2  diffutils-3.3-3  git-2.7.2-1
              make-4.1-4  mingw-w64-x86_64-gcc-5.3.0-2
              mingw-w64-x86_64-python2-2.7.11-4  patch-2.7.5-1  python-3.4.3-3
              tar-1.28-3  texinfo-6.0-1  unzip-6.0-2
Total Download Size:   114.10 MiB
Total Installed Size:  689.61 MiB
:: Proceed with installation? [Y/n] y
:: Retrieving packages...
 mingw-w64-x86_64-gm...   477.1 KiB   681K/s 00:01 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-li...    24.2 KiB   755K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-gc...   541.9 KiB   705K/s 00:01 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-ex...   106.7 KiB   702K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-bz...    77.9 KiB   666K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-li...   600.2 KiB   703K/s 00:01 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-ge...     3.0 MiB   700K/s 00:04 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-gd...   151.8 KiB   483K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-li...    34.5 KiB   705K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-li...    69.2 KiB   713K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-li...     9.3 KiB   778K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-nc...  1800.5 KiB   701K/s 00:03 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-li...   171.4 KiB   708K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-p1...   193.5 KiB   709K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-ca...   382.1 KiB   705K/s 00:01 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-zl...   148.6 KiB   704K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-op...     3.3 MiB   624K/s 00:05 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-te...    12.6 KiB  76.7K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-re...   327.4 KiB   277K/s 00:01 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-tc...     2.9 MiB   699K/s 00:04 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-tk...  1869.2 KiB   703K/s 00:03 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-py...    10.9 MiB   699K/s 00:16 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-bi...    12.7 MiB   688K/s 00:19 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-he...     5.0 MiB   645K/s 00:08 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-cr...     2.6 MiB   701K/s 00:04 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-is...   524.3 KiB   684K/s 00:01 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-mp...   265.2 KiB   705K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-mp...    62.3 KiB  82.9K/s 00:01 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-wi...  1484.0   B  0.00B/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-wi...    33.2 KiB   346K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 mingw-w64-x86_64-gc...    25.1 MiB   701K/s 00:37 [#####################] 100%
 python-3.4.3-3-x86_64     12.1 MiB   700K/s 00:18 [#####################] 100%
 bison-3.0.4-1-x86_64    1045.1 KiB   703K/s 00:01 [#####################] 100%
 heimdal-1.5.3-8-x86_64   543.7 KiB   703K/s 00:01 [#####################] 100%
 cvs-1.11.23-2-x86_64     508.2 KiB   388K/s 00:01 [#####################] 100%
 diffutils-3.3-3-x86_64   265.7 KiB   478K/s 00:01 [#####################] 100%
 expat-2.1.0-2-x86_64      13.1 KiB   817K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 vim-7.4.1468-1-x86_64      6.1 MiB   700K/s 00:09 [#####################] 100%
 openssh-7.1p2-1-x86_64   653.4 KiB   703K/s 00:01 [#####################] 100%
 db-5.3.28-2-x86_64        41.7 KiB   719K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 libgdbm-1.11-3-x86_64     20.4 KiB   754K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 gdbm-1.11-3-x86_64       108.5 KiB   704K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 perl-5.22.0-2-x86_64      12.4 MiB   702K/s 00:18 [#####################] 100%
 perl-Error-0.17024-...    17.1 KiB   742K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 perl-Authen-SASL-2....    42.4 KiB   731K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 perl-Encode-Locale-...     9.7 KiB   745K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 perl-HTTP-Date-6.02...     8.6 KiB   784K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 perl-File-Listing-6...     7.7 KiB   769K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 perl-HTML-Tagset-3....    10.3 KiB   732K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 perl-HTML-Parser-3....    76.9 KiB   516K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 perl-LWP-MediaTypes...    18.0 KiB   752K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 perl-URI-1.68-1-any       75.6 KiB   609K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 perl-HTTP-Message-6...    71.3 KiB   625K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 perl-HTTP-Cookies-6...    20.4 KiB   499K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 perl-HTTP-Daemon-6....    14.2 KiB   749K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 perl-HTTP-Negotiate...    11.4 KiB   817K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 perl-Net-HTTP-6.09-...    19.8 KiB   732K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 perl-WWW-RobotRules...    12.2 KiB   766K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 perl-libwww-6.13-1-any   122.2 KiB   661K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 perl-TimeDate-2.30-...    35.9 KiB   718K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 perl-MailTools-2.14...    58.4 KiB   712K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 perl-IO-stringy-2.1...    52.6 KiB   721K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 perl-Convert-BinHex...    30.1 KiB   733K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 perl-MIME-tools-5.5...   180.4 KiB   705K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 perl-Net-SSLeay-1.7...   191.2 KiB   708K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 perl-IO-Socket-SSL-...   112.5 KiB   703K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 perl-Net-SMTP-SSL-1...     3.5 KiB   881K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 perl-TermReadKey-2....    20.9 KiB   745K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 git-2.7.2-1-x86_64         3.6 MiB   702K/s 00:05 [#####################] 100%
 make-4.1-4-x86_64        387.0 KiB   671K/s 00:01 [#####################] 100%
 patch-2.7.5-1-x86_64      75.9 KiB   684K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
 tar-1.28-3-x86_64        671.9 KiB   379K/s 00:02 [#####################] 100%
 texinfo-6.0-1-x86_64     992.7 KiB   625K/s 00:02 [#####################] 100%
 unzip-6.0-2-x86_64        93.1 KiB   705K/s 00:00 [#####################] 100%
(74/74) checking keys in keyring                   [#####################] 100%
(74/74) checking package integrity                 [#####################] 100%
(74/74) loading package files                      [#####################] 100%
(74/74) checking for file conflicts                [#####################] 100%
(74/74) checking available disk space              [#####################] 100%
:: Processing package changes...
( 1/74) installing python                          [#####################] 100%
( 2/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-gmp            [#####################] 100%
( 3/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-libwinpthr...  [#####################] 100%
( 4/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-gcc-libs       [#####################] 100%
( 5/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-expat          [#####################] 100%
( 6/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-bzip2          [#####################] 100%
( 7/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-libiconv       [#####################] 100%
( 8/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-gettext        [#####################] 100%
( 9/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-gdbm           [#####################] 100%
(10/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-libffi         [#####################] 100%
(11/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-libtre-git     [#####################] 100%
(12/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-libsystre      [#####################] 100%
(13/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-ncurses        [#####################] 100%
(14/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-libtasn1       [#####################] 100%
(15/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-p11-kit        [#####################] 100%
(16/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-ca-certifi...  [#####################] 100%
(17/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-zlib           [#####################] 100%
(18/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-openssl        [#####################] 100%
(19/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-termcap        [#####################] 100%
(20/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-readline       [#####################] 100%
(21/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-tcl            [#####################] 100%
(22/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-tk             [#####################] 100%
(23/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-python2        [#####################] 100%
(24/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-binutils       [#####################] 100%
(25/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-headers-git    [#####################] 100%
(26/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-crt-git        [#####################] 100%
(27/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-isl            [#####################] 100%
(28/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-mpfr           [#####################] 100%
(29/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-mpc            [#####################] 100%
(30/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-windows-de...  [#####################] 100%
(31/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-winpthread...  [#####################] 100%
(32/74) installing mingw-w64-x86_64-gcc            [#####################] 100%
(33/74) installing bison                           [#####################] 100%
(34/74) installing heimdal                         [#####################] 100%
(35/74) installing cvs                             [#####################] 100%
(36/74) installing diffutils                       [#####################] 100%
(37/74) installing expat                           [#####################] 100%
(38/74) installing vim                             [#####################] 100%
(39/74) installing openssh                         [#####################] 100%
(40/74) installing db                              [#####################] 100%
(41/74) installing libgdbm                         [#####################] 100%
(42/74) installing gdbm                            [#####################] 100%
(43/74) installing perl                            [#####################] 100%
(44/74) installing perl-Error                      [#####################] 100%
(45/74) installing perl-Authen-SASL                [#####################] 100%
(46/74) installing perl-Encode-Locale              [#####################] 100%
(47/74) installing perl-HTTP-Date                  [#####################] 100%
(48/74) installing perl-File-Listing               [#####################] 100%
(49/74) installing perl-HTML-Tagset                [#####################] 100%
(50/74) installing perl-HTML-Parser                [#####################] 100%
(51/74) installing perl-LWP-MediaTypes             [#####################] 100%
(52/74) installing perl-URI                        [#####################] 100%
(53/74) installing perl-HTTP-Message               [#####################] 100%
(54/74) installing perl-HTTP-Cookies               [#####################] 100%
(55/74) installing perl-HTTP-Daemon                [#####################] 100%
(56/74) installing perl-HTTP-Negotiate             [#####################] 100%
(57/74) installing perl-Net-HTTP                   [#####################] 100%
(58/74) installing perl-WWW-RobotRules             [#####################] 100%
(59/74) installing perl-libwww                     [#####################] 100%
Optional dependencies for perl-libwww
    perl-LWP-Protocol-HTTPS: for https:// url schemes
(60/74) installing perl-TimeDate                   [#####################] 100%
(61/74) installing perl-MailTools                  [#####################] 100%
(62/74) installing perl-IO-stringy                 [#####################] 100%
(63/74) installing perl-Convert-BinHex             [#####################] 100%
module test... pass.
(64/74) installing perl-MIME-tools                 [#####################] 100%
(65/74) installing perl-Net-SSLeay                 [#####################] 100%
(66/74) installing perl-IO-Socket-SSL              [#####################] 100%
(67/74) installing perl-Net-SMTP-SSL               [#####################] 100%
(68/74) installing perl-TermReadKey                [#####################] 100%
(69/74) installing git                             [#####################] 100%
Optional dependencies for git
    python2: various helper scripts
    subversion: git svn
(70/74) installing make                            [#####################] 100%
(71/74) installing patch                           [#####################] 100%
Optional dependencies for patch
    ed: for patch -e functionality
(72/74) installing tar                             [#####################] 100%
(73/74) installing texinfo                         [#####################] 100%
(74/74) installing unzip                           [#####################] 100%
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