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RTEMS Shell User’s Guide

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========================
RTEMS Shell User’s Guide
========================

COPYRIGHT © 1988 - 2015.

On-Line Applications Research Corporation (OAR).

The authors have used their best efforts in preparing this material. These efforts include the development, research, and testing of the theories and programs to determine their effectiveness. No warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, with regard to the software or the material contained in this document is provided. No liability arising out of the application or use of any product described in this document is assumed. The authors reserve the right to revise this material and to make changes from time to time in the content hereof without obligation to notify anyone of such revision or changes.

The RTEMS Project is hosted at http://www.rtems.org. Any inquiries concerning RTEMS, its related support components, or its documentation should be directed to the Community Project hosted athttp://www.rtems.org.

Any inquiries for commercial services including training, support, custom development, application development assistance should be directed tohttp://www.rtems.com.

RTEMS Shell User’s Guide

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RTEMS Shell User’s Guide
########################

Preface

Real-time embedded systems vary widely based upon their operational and maintenance requirements. Some of these systems provide ways for the user or developer to interact with them. This interaction could be used for operational, diagnostic, or configuration purposes. The capabilities described in this manual are those provided with RTEMS to provide a command line interface for user access. Some of these commands will be familiar as standard POSIX utilities while others are RTEMS specific or helpful in debugging and analyzing an embedded system. As a simple example of the powerful and very familiar capabilities that the RTEMS Shell provides to an application, consider the following example which hints at some of the capabilities available: .. code:: c

Welcome to rtems-4.10.99.0(SPARC/w/FPU/sis) COPYRIGHT (c) 1989-2011. On-Line Applications Research Corporation (OAR). Login into RTEMS login: rtems Password: RTEMS SHELL (Ver.1.0-FRC):/dev/console. Feb 28 2008. 'help' to list commands. SHLL [/] $ cat /etc/passwd root:*:0:0:root::/:/bin/sh rtems:*:1:1:RTEMS Application::/:/bin/sh tty:!:2:2:tty owner::/:/bin/false SHLL [/] $ ls /dev -rwxr-xr-x 1 rtems root 0 Jan 01 00:00 console -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 0 Jan 01 00:00 console_b 2 files 0 bytes occupied SHLL [/] $ stackuse Stack usage by thread ID NAME LOW HIGH CURRENT AVAILABLE USED 0x09010001 IDLE 0x023d89a0 - 0x023d99af 0x023d9760 4096 608 0x0a010001 UI1 0x023d9f30 - 0x023daf3f 0x023dad18 4096 1804 0x0a010002 SHLL 0x023db4c0 - 0x023df4cf 0x023de9d0 16384 6204 0xffffffff INTR 0x023d2760 - 0x023d375f 0x00000000 4080 316 SHLL [/] $ mount -L File systems: msdos SHLL [/] $

In the above example, the user rtems logs into a SPARC based RTEMS system. The first command is cat /etc/passwd. This simple command lets us know that this application is running the In Memory File System (IMFS) and that the infrastructure has provided dummy entries for /etc/passwd and a few other files. The contents of /etc/passwd let us know that the user could have logged in as root. In fact, the root user has more permissions than rtems who is not allowed to write into the filesystem.

The second command is ls /dev which lets us know that RTEMS has POSIX-style device nodes which can be accesses through standard I/O function calls.

The third command executed is the RTEMS specific stackuse which gives a report on the stack usage of each thread in the system. Since stack overflows are a common error in deeply embedded systems, this is a surprising simple, yet powerful debugging aid.

Finally, the last command, mount -L hints that RTEMS supports a variety of mountable filesystems. With support for MS-DOS FAT on IDE/ATA and Flash devices as well as network-based filesystens such as NFS and TFTP, the standard free RTEMS provides a robuse infrastructure for embedded applications.

This manual describes the RTEMS Shell and its command set. In our terminology, the Shell is just a loop reading user input and turning that input into commands with argument. The Shell provided with RTEMS is a simple command reading loop with limited scripting capabilities. It can be connected to via a standard serial port or connected to the RTEMS``telnetd`` server for use across a network.

Each command in the command set is implemented as a single subroutine which has a main-style prototype. The commands interpret their arguments and operate upon stdin, stdout, and stderr by default. This allows each command to be invoked independent of the shell.

The described separation of shell from commands from communications mechanism was an important design goal. At one level, the RTEMS Shell is a complete shell environment providing access to multiple POSIX compliant filesystems and TCP/IP stack. The subset of capabilities available is easy to configure and the standard Shell can be logged into from either a serial port or via telnet. But at another level, the Shell is a large set of components which can be integrated into the user’s developed command interpreter. In either case, it is trivial to add custom commands to the command set available.

Acknowledgements

Configuration and Initialization

Introduction

This chapter provides information on how the application configures and initializes the RTEMS shell.

Configuration

The command set available to the application is user configurable. It is configured using a mechanism similar to the confdefs.h mechanism used to specify application configuration.

In the simplest case, if the user wishes to configure a command set with all commands available that are neither filesystem management (e.g. mounting, formating, etc.) or network related, then the following is all that is required: .. code:: c

#define CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMANDS_INIT #define CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMANDS_ALL #include <rtems/shellconfig.h>

In a slightly more complex example, if the user wishes to include all networking commands as well as support for mounting MS-DOS and NFS filesystems, then the following is all that is required: .. code:: c

#define CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMANDS_INIT #define CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMANDS_ALL #define CONFIGURE_SHELL_MOUNT_MSDOS #define CONFIGURE_SHELL_MOUNT_NFS #include <rtems/shellconfig.h>

Customizing the Command Set

The user can configure specific command sets by either building up the set from individual commands or starting with a complete set and disabling individual commands. Each command has two configuration macros associated with it.

``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_XXX``
Each command has a constant of this form which is defined when building a command set by individually enabling specific commands.
``CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_XXX``
In contrast, each command has a similar command which is defined when the application is configuring a command set by disabling specific commands in the set.

Adding Custom Commands

One of the design goals of the RTEMS Shell was to make it easy for a user to add custom commands specific to their application. We believe this design goal was accomplished. In order to add a custom command, the user is required to do the following:

  • Provide a main-style function which implements the command. If that command function uses a getopt related function to parse arguments, it MUST use the reentrant form.
  • Provide a command definition structure of type``rtems_shell_cmd_t``.
  • Configure that command using the``CONFIGURE_SHELL_USER_COMMANDS`` macro.

Custom aliases are configured similarly but the user only provides an alias definition structure of type``rtems_shell_alias_t`` and configures the alias via the CONFIGURE_SHELL_USER_ALIASES macro.

In the following example, we have implemented a custom command named usercmd which simply prints the arguments it was passed. We have also provided an alias for usercmd named userecho. .. code:: c

#include <rtems/shell.h> int main_usercmd(int argc, char **argv) { int i; printf( "UserCommand: argc=%d\n", argc ); for (i=0 ; i<argc ; i++ ) printf( "argv[%d]= %s\n", i, argv[i] ); return 0; } rtems_shell_cmd_t Shell_USERCMD_Command = { "usercmd", /* name */ "usercmd n1 [n2 [n3...]]", /* usage */ "user", /* topic */ main_usercmd, /* command */ NULL, /* alias */ NULL /* next */ }; rtems_shell_alias_t Shell_USERECHO_Alias = { "usercmd", /* command */ "userecho" /* alias */ }; #define CONFIGURE_SHELL_USER_COMMANDS &Shell_USERCMD_Command #define CONFIGURE_SHELL_USER_ALIASES &Shell_USERECHO_Alias #define CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMANDS_INIT #define CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMANDS_ALL #define CONFIGURE_SHELL_MOUNT_MSDOS #include <rtems/shellconfig.h>

Notice in the above example, that the user wrote the*main* for their command (e.g. main_usercmd) which looks much like any other main(). They then defined a rtems_shell_cmd_t structure named Shell_USERCMD_Command which describes that command. This command definition structure is registered into the static command set by defining``CONFIGURE_SHELL_USER_COMMANDS`` to``&Shell_USERCMD_Command``.

Similarly, to add the userecho alias, the user provides the alias definition structure named``Shell_USERECHO_Alias`` and defines``CONFIGURE_SHELL_USER_ALIASES`` to configure the alias.

The user can configure any number of commands and aliases in this manner.

Initialization

The shell may be easily attached to a serial port or to the telnetd server. This section describes how that is accomplished.

Attached to a Serial Port

Starting the shell attached to the console or a serial port is very simple. The user invokes rtems_shell_init with parameters to indicate the characteristics of the task that will be executing the shell including name, stack size, and priority. The user also specifies the device that the shell is to be attached to.

This example is taken from the fileio sample test. This shell portion of this test can be run on any target which provides a console with input and output capabilities. It does not include any commands which cannot be supported on all BSPs. The source code for this test is in testsuites/samples/fileio with the shell configuration in the init.c file. .. code:: c

#include <rtems/shell.h> void start_shell(void) { printf(" =========================\n"); printf(" starting shell\n"); printf(" =========================\n"); rtems_shell_init( "SHLL", /* task name */ RTEMS_MINIMUM_STACK_SIZE * 4, /* task stack size */ 100, /* task priority */ "/dev/console", /* device name */ false, /* run forever */ true, /* wait for shell to terminate */ rtems_shell_login_check /* login check function, use NULL to disable a login check */ ); }

In the above example, the call to rtems_shell_init spawns a task to run the RTEMS Shell attached to /dev/console and executing at priority 100. The caller suspends itself and lets the shell take over the console device. When the shell is exited by the user, then control returns to the caller.

Attached to a Socket

TBD

Access Control

Login Checks

Login checks are optional for the RTEMS shell and can be configured via a login check handler passed to rtems_shell_init(). One login check handler is``rtems_shell_login_check()``.

Configuration Files

The following files are used by the login check handler``rtems_shell_login_check()`` to validate a passphrase for a user and to set up the user environment for the shell command execution.

:file:`/etc/passwd`
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The format for each line is

user_name:password:UID:GID:GECOS:directory:shell

with colon separated fields. For more information refer to the Linux PASSWD(5) man page. Use a``password`` of * to disable the login of the user. An empty password allows login without a password for this user. In contrast to standard UNIX systems, this file is only readable and writeable for the user with an UID of zero by default. The directory is used to perform a filesystem change root operation in rtems_shell_login_check() in contrast to a normal usage as the HOME directory of the user. The*default* content is

root::0:0::::

so there is no password required for the root user.

:file:`/etc/group`
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The format for each line is

group_name:password:GID:user_list

with colon separated fields. The user_list is comma separated. For more information refer to the Linux GROUP(5) man page. In contrast to standard UNIX systems, this file is only readable and writeable for the user with an UID of zero by default. The default content is

root::0:

Command Visibility and Execution Permission

Each command has

  • an owner,
  • a group, and
  • a read permission flag for the owner, the group and all other users, and
  • an execution permission flag for the owner, the group and all other users.

The read and write permission flags are stored in the command mode. The read permission flags determine the visibility of the command for the current user. The execution permission flags determine the ability to execute a command for the current user. These command properties can be displayed and changed with the

  • cmdls,
  • cmdchown, and
  • cmdchmod

commands. The access is determined by the effective UID, the effective GID and the supplementary group IDs of the current user and follows the standard filesystem access procedure.

Add CRYPT(3) Formats

By default the crypt_r() function used by``rtems_shell_login_check()`` supports only plain text passphrases. Use``crypt_add_format()`` to add more formats. The following formats are available out of the box

  • crypt_md5_format,
  • crypt_sha256_format, and
  • crypt_sha512_format.

An example follows... index:: crypt_add_format

#include <crypt.h>
void add_formats( void )
{
crypt_add_format( &crypt_md5_format );
crypt_add_format( &crypt_sha512_format );
}

Functions

This section describes the Shell related C functions which are publicly available related to initialization and configuration.

rtems_shell_init - Initialize the shell

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.. index:: initialization

CALLING SEQUENCE:

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.. index:: rtems_shell_init
rtems_status_code rtems_shell_init(
const char          \*task_name,
size_t               task_stacksize,
rtems_task_priority  task_priority,
const char          \*devname,
bool                 forever,
bool                 wait,
rtems_login_check    login_check
);

DIRECTIVE STATUS CODES:

RTEMS_SUCCESSFUL - Shell task spawned successfully

others - to indicate a failure condition

DESCRIPTION:

This service creates a task with the specified characteristics to run the RTEMS Shell attached to the specified devname.

NOTES:

This method invokes the rtems_task_create and rtems_task_start directives and as such may return any status code that those directives may return.

There is one POSIX key necessary for all shell instances together and one POSIX key value pair per instance. You should make sure that your RTEMS configuration accounts for these resources.

rtems_shell_login_check - Default login check handler

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.. index:: initialization

CALLING SEQUENCE:

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.. index:: rtems_shell_login_check
bool rtems_shell_login_check(
const char \*user,
const char \*passphrase
);

DIRECTIVE STATUS CODES:

true - login is allowed, and false - otherwise.

DESCRIPTION:

This function checks if the specified passphrase is valid for the specified user.

NOTES:

As a side-effect if the specified passphrase is valid for the specified user, this function

  • performs a filesystem change root operation to the directory of the specified user if the directory path is non-empty,
  • changes the owner of the current shell device to the UID of the specified user,
  • sets the real and effective UID of the current user environment to the UID of the specified user,
  • sets the real and effective GID of the current user environment to the GID of the specified user, and
  • sets the supplementary group IDs of the current user environment to the supplementary group IDs of the specified user.

In case the filesystem change root operation fails, then the environment setup is aborted and false is returned.

General Commands

Introduction

The RTEMS shell has the following general commands:

  • help - Print command help
  • alias - Add alias for an existing command
  • cmdls - List commands
  • cmdchown - Change user or owner of commands
  • cmdchmod - Change mode of commands
  • date - Print or set current date and time
  • echo - Produce message in a shell script
  • sleep - Delay for a specified amount of time
  • id - show uid gid euid and egid
  • tty - show ttyname
  • whoami - print effective user id
  • getenv - print environment variable
  • setenv - set environment variable
  • unsetenv - unset environment variable
  • time - time command execution
  • logoff - logoff from the system
  • rtc - RTC driver configuration
  • exit - alias for logoff command

Commands

This section details the General Commands available. A subsection is dedicated to each of the commands and describes the behavior and configuration of that command as well as providing an example usage.

help - Print command help

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.. index:: help

SYNOPSYS:

help misc

DESCRIPTION:

This command prints the command help. Help without arguments prints a list of topics and help with a topic prints the help for that topic.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0.

NOTES:

The help print will break the output up based on the environment variable SHELL_LINES. If this environment variable is not set the default is 16 lines. If set the number of lines is set to that the value. If the shell lines is set 0 there will be no break.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use alias: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ help help: ('r' repeat last cmd - 'e' edit last cmd) TOPIC? The topics are mem, misc, files, help, rtems, network, monitor SHLL [/] $ help misc help: list for the topic 'misc' alias - alias old new time - time command [arguments...] joel - joel [args] SCRIPT date - date [YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS] echo - echo [args] sleep - sleep seconds [nanoseconds] id - show uid, gid, euid, and egid tty - show ttyname whoami - show current user logoff - logoff from the system setenv - setenv [var] [string] getenv - getenv [var] unsetenv - unsetenv [var] umask - umask [new_umask] Press any key to continue... rtc - real time clock read and set SHLL [/] $ setenv SHELL_ENV 0 SHLL [/] $ help misc help: list for the topic 'misc' alias - alias old new time - time command [arguments...] joel - joel [args] SCRIPT date - date [YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS] echo - echo [args] sleep - sleep seconds [nanoseconds] id - show uid, gid, euid, and egid tty - show ttyname whoami - show current user logoff - logoff from the system setenv - setenv [var] [string] getenv - getenv [var] unsetenv - unsetenv [var] umask - umask [new_umask] rtc - real time clock read and set

CONFIGURATION:

This command has no configuration.

alias - add alias for an existing command

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.. index:: alias

SYNOPSYS:

alias oldCommand newCommand

DESCRIPTION:

This command adds an alternate name for an existing command to the command set.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use alias: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ me shell:me command not found SHLL [/] $ alias whoami me SHLL [/] $ me rtems SHLL [/] $ whoami rtems

CONFIGURATION:

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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_ALIAS
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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_ALIAS

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_ALIAS`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_ALIAS when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

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.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_alias

The alias is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_alias( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the alias has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_ALIAS_Command;

cmdls - List commands

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.. index:: cmdls

SYNOPSYS:

cmdls COMMAND...

DESCRIPTION:

This command lists the visible commands of the command set.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

The current user must have read permission to list a command.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use cmdls: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] # cmdls help shutdown r-xr-xr-x 0 0 help r-x------ 0 0 shutdown

CONFIGURATION:

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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_CMDLS
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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_CMDLS

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_CMDLS`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_CMDLS when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

The configuration structure for the cmdls has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_CMDLS_Command;

cmdchown - Change user or owner of commands

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.. index:: cmdchown

SYNOPSYS:

cmdchown \[OWNER][:\[GROUP]] COMMAND...

DESCRIPTION:

This command changes the user or owner of a command.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

The current user must have an UID of zero or be the command owner to change the owner or group.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use cmdchown: .. code:: c

[/] # cmdls help r-xr-xr-x 0 0 help [/] # cmdchown 1:1 help [/] # cmdls help r--r--r-- 1 1 help

CONFIGURATION:

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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_CMDCHOWN
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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_CMDCHOWN

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_CMDCHOWN`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_CMDCHOWN when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

The configuration structure for the cmdchown has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_CMDCHOWN_Command;

cmdchmod - Change mode of commands

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.. index:: cmdchmod

SYNOPSYS:

cmdchmod OCTAL-MODE COMMAND...

DESCRIPTION:

This command changes the mode of a command.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

The current user must have an UID of zero or be the command owner to change the mode.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use cmdchmod: .. code:: c

[/] # cmdls help r-xr-xr-x 0 0 help [/] # cmdchmod 544 help [/] # cmdls help r-xr--r-- 0 0 help

CONFIGURATION:

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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_CMDCHMOD
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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_CMDCHMOD

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_CMDCHMOD`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_CMDCHMOD when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

The configuration structure for the cmdchmod has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_CMDCHMOD_Command;

date - print or set current date and time

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.. index:: date

SYNOPSYS:

date
date DATE TIME

DESCRIPTION:

This command operates one of two modes. When invoked with no arguments, it prints the current date and time. When invoked with both date and time arguments, it sets the current time.

The date is specified in YYYY-MM-DD format. The time is specified in HH:MM:SS format.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

This comm

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use date: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ date Fri Jan 1 00:00:09 1988 SHLL [/] $ date 2008-02-29 06:45:32 SHLL [/] $ date Fri Feb 29 06:45:35 2008

CONFIGURATION:

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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_DATE
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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_DATE

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_DATE`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_DATE when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

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.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_date

The date is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_date( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the date has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_DATE_Command;

echo - produce message in a shell script

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.. index:: echo

SYNOPSYS:

echo \[-n | -e] args ...

DESCRIPTION:

echo prints its arguments on the standard output, separated by spaces. Unless the -n option is present, a newline is output following the arguments. The -e option causes echo to treat the escape sequences specially, as described in the following paragraph. The -e option is the default, and is provided solely for compatibility with other systems. Only one of the options -n and -e may be given.

If any of the following sequences of characters is encountered during output, the sequence is not output. Instead, the specified action is performed:

\b
A backspace character is output.
\c
Subsequent output is suppressed. This is normally used at the end of the last argument to suppress the trailing newline that echo would otherwise output.
\f
Output a form feed.
\n
Output a newline character.
\r
Output a carriage return.
\t
Output a (horizontal) tab character.
\v
Output a vertical tab.
\0digits
Output the character whose value is given by zero to three digits. If there are zero digits, a nul character is output.
\\
Output a backslash.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

The octal character escape mechanism (\0digits) differs from the C lan- guage mechanism.

There is no way to force echo to treat its arguments literally, rather than interpreting them as options and escape sequences.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use echo: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ echo a b c a b c SHLL [/] $ echo

CONFIGURATION:

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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_ECHO
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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_ECHO

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_ECHO`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_ECHO when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

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.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_echo

The echo is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_echo( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the echo has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_ECHO_Command;

ORIGIN:

The implementation and portions of the documentation for this command are from NetBSD 4.0.

sleep - delay for a specified amount of time

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.. index:: sleep

SYNOPSYS:

sleep seconds
sleep seconds nanoseconds

DESCRIPTION:

This command causes the task executing the shell to block for the specified number of seconds and nanoseconds.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

This command is implemented using the nanosleep() method.

The command line interface is similar to the sleep command found on POSIX systems but the addition of the nanoseconds parameter allows fine grained delays in shell scripts without adding another command such as usleep.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use sleep: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ sleep 10 SHLL [/] $ sleep 0 5000000

It is not clear from the above but there is a ten second pause after executing the first command before the prompt is printed. The second command completes very quickly from a human perspective and there is no noticeable delay in the prompt being printed.

CONFIGURATION:

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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_SLEEP
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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_SLEEP

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_SLEEP`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_SLEEP when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

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.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_sleep

The sleep is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_sleep( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the sleep has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_SLEEP_Command;

id - show uid gid euid and egid

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.. index:: id

SYNOPSYS:

id

DESCRIPTION:

This command prints the user identity. This includes the user id (uid), group id (gid), effective user id (euid), and effective group id (egid).

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

Remember there is only one POSIX process in a single processor RTEMS application. Each thread may have its own user identity and that identity is used by the filesystem to enforce permissions.

EXAMPLES:

The first example of the id command is from a session logged in as the normal user rtems: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] # id uid=1(rtems),gid=1(rtems),euid=1(rtems),egid=1(rtems)

The second example of the id command is from a session logged in as the root user: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] # id uid=0(root),gid=0(root),euid=0(root),egid=0(root)

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_ID
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_ID

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_ID`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_ID when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_id

The id is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_id( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the id has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_ID_Command;

tty - show ttyname

?
.. index:: tty

SYNOPSYS:

tty

DESCRIPTION:

This command prints the file name of the device connected to standard input.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use tty: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ tty /dev/console

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_TTY
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_TTY

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_TTY`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_TTY when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_tty

The tty is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_tty( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the tty has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_TTY_Command;

whoami - print effective user id

?
.. index:: whoami

SYNOPSYS:

whoami

DESCRIPTION:

This command displays the user name associated with the current effective user id.

EXIT STATUS:

This command always succeeds.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use whoami: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ whoami rtems

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_WHOAMI
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_WHOAMI

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_WHOAMI`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_WHOAMI when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_whoami

The whoami is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_whoami( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the whoami has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_WHOAMI_Command;

getenv - print environment variable

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.. index:: getenv

SYNOPSYS:

getenv variable

DESCRIPTION:

This command is used to display the value of a variable in the set of environment variables.

EXIT STATUS:

This command will return 1 and print a diagnostic message if a failure occurs.

NOTES:

The entire RTEMS application shares a single set of environment variables.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use getenv: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ getenv BASEPATH /mnt/hda1

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_GETENV
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_GETENV

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_GETENV`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_GETENV when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_getenv

The getenv is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_getenv( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the getenv has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_GETENV_Command;

setenv - set environment variable

?
.. index:: setenv

SYNOPSYS:

setenv variable \[value]

DESCRIPTION:

This command is used to add a new variable to the set of environment variables or to modify the variable of an already existing variable. If the value is not provided, the variable will be set to the empty string.

EXIT STATUS:

This command will return 1 and print a diagnostic message if a failure occurs.

NOTES:

The entire RTEMS application shares a single set of environment variables.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use setenv: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ setenv BASEPATH /mnt/hda1

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_SETENV
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_SETENV

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_SETENV`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_SETENV when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_setenv

The setenv is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_setenv( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the setenv has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_SETENV_Command;

unsetenv - unset environment variable

?
.. index:: unsetenv

SYNOPSYS:

unsetenv variable

DESCRIPTION:

This command is remove to a variable from the set of environment variables.

EXIT STATUS:

This command will return 1 and print a diagnostic message if a failure occurs.

NOTES:

The entire RTEMS application shares a single set of environment variables.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use unsetenv: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ unsetenv BASEPATH

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_UNSETENV
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_UNSETENV

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_UNSETENV`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_UNSETENV when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_unsetenv

The unsetenv is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_unsetenv( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the unsetenv has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_UNSETENV_Command;

time - time command execution

?
.. index:: time

SYNOPSYS:

time command \[argument ...]

DESCRIPTION:

The time command executes and times a command. After the command finishes, time writes the total time elapsed. Times are reported in seconds.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

None.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use time: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ time cp -r /nfs/directory /c

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_TIME
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_TIME

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_TIME`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_TIME when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_time

The time is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_time( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the time has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_TIME_Command;

logoff - logoff from the system

?
.. index:: logoff

SYNOPSYS:

logoff

DESCRIPTION:

This command logs the user out of the shell.

EXIT STATUS:

This command does not return.

NOTES:

The system behavior when the shell is exited depends upon how the shell was initiated. The typical behavior is that a login prompt will be displayed for the next login attempt or that the connection will be dropped by the RTEMS system.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use logoff: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ logoff logoff from the system...

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_LOGOFF
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_LOGOFF

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_LOGOFF`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_LOGOFF when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_logoff

The logoff is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_logoff( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the logoff has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_LOGOFF_Command;

rtc - RTC driver configuration

?
.. index:: rtc

SYNOPSYS:

rtc

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_RTC
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_RTC

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_RTC`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_RTC when all shell commands have been configured.

exit - exit the shell

?
.. index:: exit

SYNOPSYS:

exit

DESCRIPTION:

This command causes the shell interpreter to exit.

EXIT STATUS:

This command does not return.

NOTES:

In contrast to :ref:`logoff <General-Commands-logoff-_002d-logoff-from-the-system>`, this command is built into the shell interpreter loop.

?

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use exit: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ exit Shell exiting

CONFIGURATION:

This command is always present and cannot be disabled.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

The exit is implemented directly in the shell interpreter. There is no C routine associated with it.

File and Directory Commands

Introduction

The RTEMS shell has the following file and directory commands:

  • blksync - sync the block driver
  • cat - display file contents
  • cd - alias for chdir
  • chdir - change the current directory
  • chmod - change permissions of a file
  • chroot - change the root directory
  • cp - copy files
  • dd - format disks
  • debugrfs - debug RFS file system
  • df - display file system disk space usage
  • dir - alias for ls
  • fdisk - format disks
  • hexdump - format disks
  • ln - make links
  • ls - list files in the directory
  • md5 - display file system disk space usage
  • mkdir - create a directory
  • mkdos - DOSFS disk format
  • mknod - make device special file
  • mkrfs - format RFS file system
  • mount - mount disk
  • mv - move files
  • pwd - print work directory
  • rmdir - remove empty directories
  • rm - remove files
  • umask - Set file mode creation mask
  • unmount - unmount disk

Commands

This section details the File and Directory Commands available. A subsection is dedicated to each of the commands and describes the behavior and configuration of that command as well as providing an example usage.

blksync - sync the block driver

?
.. index:: blksync

SYNOPSYS:

blksync driver

DESCRIPTION:

This command XXX

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use blksync: .. code:: c

EXAMPLE_TBD

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_BLKSYNC
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_BLKSYNC

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_BLKSYNC`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_BLKSYNC when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_blksync

The blksync is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_blksync( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the blksync has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_BLKSYNC_Command;

cat - display file contents

?
.. index:: cat

SYNOPSYS:

cat file1 \[file2 .. fileN]

DESCRIPTION:

This command displays the contents of the specified files.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

It is possible to read the input from a device file using cat.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use cat: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] # cat /etc/passwd root:*:0:0:root::/:/bin/sh rtems:*:1:1:RTEMS Application::/:/bin/sh tty:!:2:2:tty owner::/:/bin/false

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_CAT
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_CAT

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_CAT`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_CAT when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_cat

The cat is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_cat( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the cat has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_CAT_Command;

cd - alias for chdir

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.. index:: cd

SYNOPSYS:

cd directory

DESCRIPTION:

This command is an alias or alternate name for the chdir. See :ref:`cd <File-and-Directory-Commands-chdir-_002d-change-the-current-directory>` for more information.

?

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use cd: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ cd etc SHLL [/etc] $ cd / SHLL [/] $ cd /etc SHLL [/etc] $ pwd /etc SHLL [/etc] $ cd / SHLL [/] $ pwd / SHLL [/] $ cd etc SHLL [/etc] $ cd .. SHLL [/] $ pwd /

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_CD
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_CD

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_CD`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_CD when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_cd

The cd is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_cd( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the cd has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_CD_Command;

chdir - change the current directory

?
.. index:: chdir

SYNOPSYS:

chdir \[dir]

DESCRIPTION:

This command is used to change the current working directory to the specified directory. If no arguments are given, the current working directory will be changed to /.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use chdir: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ pwd / SHLL [/] $ chdir etc SHLL [/etc] $ pwd /etc

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_CHDIR
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_CHDIR

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_CHDIR`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_CHDIR when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_chdir

The chdir is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_chdir( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the chdir has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_CHDIR_Command;

chmod - change permissions of a file

?
.. index:: chmod

SYNOPSYS:

chmod permissions file1 \[file2...]

DESCRIPTION:

This command changes the permissions on the files specified to the indicated permissions. The permission values are POSIX based with owner, group, and world having individual read, write, and executive permission bits.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

The chmod command only takes numeric representations of the permissions.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use chmod: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] # cd etc SHLL [/etc] # ls -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 102 Jan 01 00:00 passwd -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 42 Jan 01 00:00 group -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 30 Jan 01 00:00 issue -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 28 Jan 01 00:00 issue.net 4 files 202 bytes occupied SHLL [/etc] # chmod 0777 passwd SHLL [/etc] # ls -rwxrwxrwx 1 root root 102 Jan 01 00:00 passwd -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 42 Jan 01 00:00 group -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 30 Jan 01 00:00 issue -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 28 Jan 01 00:00 issue.net 4 files 202 bytes occupied SHLL [/etc] # chmod 0322 passwd SHLL [/etc] # ls --wx-w--w- 1 nouser root 102 Jan 01 00:00 passwd -rw-r--r-- 1 nouser root 42 Jan 01 00:00 group -rw-r--r-- 1 nouser root 30 Jan 01 00:00 issue -rw-r--r-- 1 nouser root 28 Jan 01 00:00 issue.net 4 files 202 bytes occupied SHLL [/etc] # chmod 0644 passwd SHLL [/etc] # ls -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 102 Jan 01 00:00 passwd -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 42 Jan 01 00:00 group -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 30 Jan 01 00:00 issue -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 28 Jan 01 00:00 issue.net 4 files 202 bytes occupied

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_CHMOD
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_CHMOD

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_CHMOD`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_CHMOD when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_chmod

The chmod is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_chmod( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the chmod has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_CHMOD_Command;

chroot - change the root directory

?
.. index:: chroot

SYNOPSYS:

chroot \[dir]

DESCRIPTION:

This command changes the root directory to dir for subsequent commands.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

The destination directory dir must exist.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use chroot and the impact it has on the environment for subsequent command invocations: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ cat passwd cat: passwd: No such file or directory SHLL [/] $ chroot etc SHLL [/] $ cat passwd root:*:0:0:root::/:/bin/sh rtems:*:1:1:RTEMS Application::/:/bin/sh tty:!:2:2:tty owner::/:/bin/false SHLL [/] $ cat /etc/passwd cat: /etc/passwd: No such file or directory

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_CHROOT
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_CHROOT

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_CHROOT`` to have this command included. Additional to that you have to add one POSIX key value pair for each thread where you want to use the command.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_CHROOT when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_chroot

The chroot is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_chroot( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the chroot has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_CHROOT_Command;

cp - copy files

?
.. index:: cp

SYNOPSYS:

cp \[-R \[-H | -L | -P]] \[-f | -i] \[-pv] src target
cp \[-R \[-H | -L] ] \[-f | -i] \[-NpPv] source_file ... target_directory

DESCRIPTION:

In the first synopsis form, the cp utility copies the contents of the source_file to the target_file. In the second synopsis form, the contents of each named source_file is copied to the destination target_directory. The names of the files themselves are not changed. If cp detects an attempt to copy a file to itself, the copy will fail.

The following options are available:

-f
For each existing destination pathname, attempt to overwrite it. If permissions do not allow copy to succeed, remove it and create a new file, without prompting for confirmation. (The -i option is ignored if the -f option is specified.)
-H
If the -R option is specified, symbolic links on the command line are followed. (Symbolic links encountered in the tree traversal are not followed.)
-i
Causes cp to write a prompt to the standard error output before copying a file that would overwrite an existing file. If the response from the standard input begins with the character ’y’, the file copy is attempted.
-L
If the -R option is specified, all symbolic links are followed.
-N
When used with -p, do not copy file flags.
-P
No symbolic links are followed.
-p
Causes cp to preserve in the copy as many of the modification time, access time, file flags, file mode, user ID, and group ID as allowed by permissions. If the user ID and group ID cannot be preserved, no error message is displayed and the exit value is not altered. If the source file has its set user ID bit on and the user ID cannot be preserved, the set user ID bit is not preserved in the copy’s permissions. If the source file has its set group ID bit on and the group ID cannot be preserved, the set group ID bit is not preserved in the copy’s permissions. If the source file has both its set user ID and set group ID bits on, and either the user ID or group ID cannot be preserved, neither the set user ID or set group ID bits are preserved in the copy’s permissions.
-R
If source_file designates a directory, cp copies the directory and the entire subtree connected at that point. This option also causes symbolic links to be copied, rather than indirected through, and for cp to create special files rather than copying them as normal files. Created directories have the same mode as the corresponding source directory, unmodified by the process’s umask.
-v
Cause cp to be verbose, showing files as they are copied.

For each destination file that already exists, its contents are overwritten if permissions allow, but its mode, user ID, and group ID are unchanged.

In the second synopsis form, target_directory must exist unless there is only one named source_file which is a directory and the -R flag is specified.

If the destination file does not exist, the mode of the source file is used as modified by the file mode creation mask (umask, see csh(1)). If the source file has its set user ID bit on, that bit is removed unless both the source file and the destination file are owned by the same user. If the source file has its set group ID bit on, that bit is removed unless both the source file and the destination file are in the same group and the user is a member of that group. If both the set user ID and set group ID bits are set, all of the above conditions must be fulfilled or both bits are removed.

Appropriate permissions are required for file creation or overwriting.

Symbolic links are always followed unless the -R flag is set, in which case symbolic links are not followed, by default. The -H or -L flags (in conjunction with the -R flag), as well as the -P flag cause symbolic links to be followed as described above. The -H and -L options are ignored unless the -R option is specified. In addition, these options override eachsubhedading other and the command’s actions are determined by the last one specified.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use cp to copy a file to a new name in the current directory: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] # cat joel cat: joel: No such file or directory SHLL [/] # cp etc/passwd joel SHLL [/] # cat joel root:*:0:0:root::/:/bin/sh rtems:*:1:1:RTEMS Application::/:/bin/sh tty:!:2:2:tty owner::/:/bin/false SHLL [/] # ls drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 536 Jan 01 00:00 dev/ drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 1072 Jan 01 00:00 etc/ -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 102 Jan 01 00:00 joel 3 files 1710 bytes occupied

The following is an example of how to use cp to copy one or more files to a destination directory and use the same basename in the destination directory: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] # mkdir tmp SHLL [/] # ls tmp 0 files 0 bytes occupied SHLL [/] # cp /etc/passwd tmp SHLL [/] # ls /tmp -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 102 Jan 01 00:01 passwd 1 files 102 bytes occupied SHLL [/] # cp /etc/passwd /etc/group /tmp SHLL [/] # ls /tmp -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 102 Jan 01 00:01 passwd -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 42 Jan 01 00:01 group 2 files 144 bytes occupied SHLL [/] #

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_CP
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_CP

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_CP`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_CP when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_main_cp

The cp command is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_main_cp( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the cp has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_CP_Command;

ORIGIN:

The implementation and portions of the documentation for this command are from NetBSD 4.0.

dd - convert and copy a file

?
.. index:: dd

SYNOPSYS:

dd \[operands ...]

DESCRIPTION:

The dd utility copies the standard input to the standard output. Input data is read and written in 512-byte blocks. If input reads are short, input from multiple reads are aggregated to form the output block. When finished, dd displays the number of complete and partial input and output blocks and truncated input records to the standard error output.

The following operands are available:

bs=n
Set both input and output block size, superseding the ibs and obs operands. If no conversion values other than noerror, notrunc or sync are specified, then each input block is copied to the output as a single block without any aggregation of short blocks.
cbs=n
Set the conversion record size to n bytes. The conversion record size is required by the record oriented conversion values.
count=n
Copy only n input blocks.
files=n
Copy n input files before terminating. This operand is only applicable when the input device is a tape.
ibs=n
Set the input block size to n bytes instead of the default 512.
if=file
Read input from file instead of the standard input.
obs=n
Set the output block size to n bytes instead of the default 512.
of=file
Write output to file instead of the standard output. Any regular output file is truncated unless the notrunc conversion value is specified. If an initial portion of the output file is skipped (see the seek operand) the output file is truncated at that point.
seek=n
Seek n blocks from the beginning of the output before copying. On non-tape devices, a lseek operation is used. Otherwise, existing blocks are read and the data discarded. If the seek operation is past the end of file, space from the current end of file to the specified offset is filled with blocks of NUL bytes.
skip=n
Skip n blocks from the beginning of the input before copying. On input which supports seeks, a lseek operation is used. Otherwise, input data is read and discarded. For pipes, the correct number of bytes is read. For all other devices, the correct number of blocks is read without distinguishing between a partial or complete block being read.
progress=n
Switch on display of progress if n is set to any non-zero value. This will cause a “.” to be printed (to the standard error output) for every n full or partial blocks written to the output file.
conv=value[,value...]

Where value is one of the symbols from the following list.

ascii, oldascii

The same as the unblock value except that characters are translated from EBCDIC to ASCII before the records are converted. (These values imply unblock if the operand cbs is also specified.) There are two conversion maps for ASCII. The value ascii specifies the recom- mended one which is compatible with AT&T System V UNIX. The value oldascii specifies the one used in historic AT&T and pre 4.3BSD-Reno systems.

block

Treats the input as a sequence of newline or end-of-file terminated variable length records independent of input and output block boundaries. Any trailing newline character is discarded. Each input record is converted to a fixed length output record where the length is specified by the cbs operand. Input records shorter than the conversion record size are padded with spaces. Input records longer than the conversion record size are truncated. The number of truncated input records, if any, are reported to the standard error output at the completion of the copy.

ebcdic, ibm, oldebcdic, oldibm

The same as the block value except that characters are translated from ASCII to EBCDIC after the records are converted. (These values imply block if the operand cbs is also specified.) There are four conversion maps for EBCDIC. The value ebcdic specifies the recommended one which is compatible with AT&T System V UNIX. The value ibm is a slightly different mapping, which is compatible with the AT&T System V UNIX ibm value. The values oldebcdic and oldibm are maps used in historic AT&T and pre 4.3BSD-Reno systems.

lcase

Transform uppercase characters into lowercase characters.

noerror

Do not stop processing on an input error. When an input error occurs, a diagnostic message followed by the current input and output block counts will be written to the standard error output in the same format as the standard completion message. If the sync conversion is also specified, any missing input data will be replaced with NUL bytes (or with spaces if a block oriented conversion value was specified) and processed as a normal input buffer. If the sync conversion is not specified, the input block is omitted from the output. On input files which are not tapes or pipes, the file offset will be positioned past the block in which the error occurred using lseek(2).

notrunc

Do not truncate the output file. This will preserve any blocks in the output file not explicitly written by dd. The notrunc value is not supported for tapes.

osync

Pad the final output block to the full output block size. If the input file is not a multiple of the output block size after conversion, this conversion forces the final output block to be the same size as preceding blocks for use on devices that require regularly sized blocks to be written. This option is incompatible with use of the bs=n block size specification.

sparse

If one or more non-final output blocks would consist solely of NUL bytes, try to seek the output file by the required space instead of filling them with NULs. This results in a sparse file on some file systems.

swab

Swap every pair of input bytes. If an input buffer has an odd number of bytes, the last byte will be ignored during swapping.

sync

Pad every input block to the input buffer size. Spaces are used for pad bytes if a block oriented conversion value is specified, otherwise NUL bytes are used.

ucase

Transform lowercase characters into uppercase characters.

unblock

Treats the input as a sequence of fixed length records independent of input and output block boundaries. The length of the input records is specified by the cbs operand. Any trailing space characters are discarded and a newline character is appended.

Where sizes are specified, a decimal number of bytes is expected. Two or more numbers may be separated by an “x” to indicate a product. Each number may have one of the following optional suffixes:

b
Block; multiply by 512
k
Kibi; multiply by 1024 (1 KiB)
m
Mebi; multiply by 1048576 (1 MiB)
g
Gibi; multiply by 1073741824 (1 GiB)
t
Tebi; multiply by 1099511627776 (1 TiB)
w
Word; multiply by the number of bytes in an integer

When finished, dd displays the number of complete and partial input and output blocks, truncated input records and odd-length byte-swapping ritten. Partial output blocks to tape devices are considered fatal errors. Otherwise, the rest of the block will be written. Partial output blocks to character devices will produce a warning message. A truncated input block is one where a variable length record oriented conversion value was specified and the input line was too long to fit in the conversion record or was not newline terminated.

Normally, data resulting from input or conversion or both are aggregated into output blocks of the specified size. After the end of input is reached, any remaining output is written as a block. This means that the final output block may be shorter than the output block size.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use dd: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ dd if=/nfs/boot-image of=/dev/hda1

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_DD
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_DD

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_DD`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining``CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_DD`` when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_dd

The dd command is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_dd( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the dd has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_DD_Command;

debugrfs - debug RFS file system

?
.. index:: debugrfs

SYNOPSYS:

debugrfs \[-hl] path command \[options]

DESCRIPTION:

The command provides debugging information for the RFS file system.

The options are:

-h
Print a help message.
-l
List the commands.
path
Path to the mounted RFS file system. The file system has to be mounted to view to use this command.

The commands are:

block start [end]
Display the contents of the blocks from start to end.
data
Display the file system data and configuration.
dir bno
Process the block as a directory displaying the entries.
group start [end]
Display the group data from the start group to the end group.

inode [-aef] [start] [end]

Display the inodes between start and end. If no start and end is provides all inodes are displayed.

-a

Display all inodes. That is allocated and unallocated inodes.

-e

Search and display on inodes that have an error.

-f

Force display of inodes, even when in error.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use debugrfs: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ debugrfs /c data

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_DEBUGRFS
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_DEBUGRFS

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_DEBUGRFS`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_DEBUGRFS when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_debugrfs

The debugrfs command is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_debugrfs( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for debugrfs has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_DEBUGRFS_Command;

df - display file system disk space usage

?
.. index:: df

SYNOPSYS:

df \[-h] \[-B block_size]

DESCRIPTION:

This command print disk space usage for mounted file systems.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use df: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ df -B 4K Filesystem 4K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on /dev/rda 124 1 124 0% /mnt/ramdisk SHLL [/] $ df Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on /dev/rda 495 1 494 0% /mnt/ramdisk SHLL [/] $ df -h Filesystem Size Used Available Use% Mounted on /dev/rda 495K 1K 494K 0% /mnt/ramdisk

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_DF
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_DF

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_DF`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_DF when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_df

The df is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_main_df( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the df has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_DF_Command;

dir - alias for ls

?
.. index:: dir

SYNOPSYS:

dir \[dir]

DESCRIPTION:

This command is an alias or alternate name for the ls. See :ref:`ls <File-and-Directory-Commands-ls-_002d-list-files-in-the-directory>` for more information.

?

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use dir: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ dir drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 536 Jan 01 00:00 dev/ drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 1072 Jan 01 00:00 etc/ 2 files 1608 bytes occupied SHLL [/] $ dir etc -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 102 Jan 01 00:00 passwd -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 42 Jan 01 00:00 group -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 30 Jan 01 00:00 issue -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 28 Jan 01 00:00 issue.net 4 files 202 bytes occupied

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_DIR
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_DIR

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_DIR`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_DIR when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_dir

The dir is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_dir( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the dir has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_DIR_Command;

fdisk - format disk

?
.. index:: fdisk

SYNOPSYS:

fdisk

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_FDISK
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_FDISK

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_FDISK`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_FDISK when all shell commands have been configured.

hexdump - ascii/dec/hex/octal dump

?
.. index:: hexdump

SYNOPSYS:

hexdump \[-bcCdovx] \[-e format_string] \[-f format_file] \[-n length]
\[-s skip] file ...

DESCRIPTION:

The hexdump utility is a filter which displays the specified files, or the standard input, if no files are specified, in a user specified format.

The options are as follows:

-b
One-byte octal display. Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by sixteen space-separated, three column, zero-filled, bytes of input data, in octal, per line.
-c
One-byte character display. Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by sixteen space-separated, three column, space-filled, characters of input data per line.
-C
Canonical hex+ASCII display. Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by sixteen space-separated, two column, hexadecimal bytes, followed by the same sixteen bytes in %_p format enclosed in “|” characters.
-d
Two-byte decimal display. Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by eight space-separated, five column, zero-filled, two-byte units of input data, in unsigned decimal, per line.
-e format_string
Specify a format string to be used for displaying data.
-f format_file
Specify a file that contains one or more newline separated format strings. Empty lines and lines whose first non-blank character is a hash mark (#) are ignored.
-n length
Interpret only length bytes of input.
-o
Two-byte octal display. Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by eight space-separated, six column, zerofilled, two byte quantities of input data, in octal, per line.
-s offset
Skip offset bytes from the beginning of the input. By default, offset is interpreted as a decimal number. With a leading 0x or 0X, offset is interpreted as a hexadecimal number, otherwise, with a leading 0, offset is interpreted as an octal number. Appending the character b, k, or m to offset causes it to be interpreted as a multiple of 512, 1024, or 1048576, respectively.
-v
The -v option causes hexdump to display all input data. Without the -v option, any number of groups of output lines, which would be identical to the immediately preceding group of output lines (except for the input offsets), are replaced with a line containing a single asterisk.
-x
Two-byte hexadecimal display. Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by eight, space separated, four column, zero-filled, two-byte quantities of input data, in hexadecimal, per line.

For each input file, hexdump sequentially copies the input to standard output, transforming the data according to the format strings specified by the -e and -f options, in the order that they were specified.

Formats

A format string contains any number of format units, separated by whitespace. A format unit contains up to three items: an iteration count, a byte count, and a format.

The iteration count is an optional positive integer, which defaults to one. Each format is applied iteration count times.

The byte count is an optional positive integer. If specified it defines the number of bytes to be interpreted by each iteration of the format.

If an iteration count and/or a byte count is specified, a single slash must be placed after the iteration count and/or before the byte count to disambiguate them. Any whitespace before or after the slash is ignored.

The format is required and must be surrounded by double quote (“ “) marks. It is interpreted as a fprintf-style format string (see*fprintf*), with the following exceptions:

  • An asterisk (*) may not be used as a field width or precision.

  • A byte count or field precision is required for each “s” con- version character (unlike the fprintf(3) default which prints the entire string if the precision is unspecified).

  • The conversion characters “h”, “l”, “n”, “p” and “q” are not supported.

  • The single character escape sequences described in the C standard are supported:

    NUL \0 <alert character> \a <backspace> \b <form-feed> \f <newline> \n <carriage return> \r <tab> \t <vertical tab> \v

Hexdump also supports the following additional conversion strings:

_a[dox]
Display the input offset, cumulative across input files, of the next byte to be displayed. The appended characters d, o, and x specify the display base as decimal, octal or hexadecimal respectively.
_A[dox]
Identical to the _a conversion string except that it is only performed once, when all of the input data has been processed.
_c
Output characters in the default character set. Nonprinting characters are displayed in three character, zero-padded octal, except for those representable by standard escape notation (see above), which are displayed as two character strings.
_p
Output characters in the default character set. Nonprinting characters are displayed as a single “.”.
_u
Output US ASCII characters, with the exception that control characters are displayed using the following, lower-case, names. Characters greater than 0xff, hexadecimal, are displayed as hexadecimal strings. 000 nul 001 soh 002 stx 003 etx 004 eot 005 enq 006 ack 007 bel 008 bs 009 ht 00A lf 00B vt 00C ff 00D cr 00E so 00F si 010 dle 011 dc1 012 dc2 013 dc3 014 dc4 015 nak 016 syn 017 etb 018 can 019 em 01A sub 01B esc 01C fs 01D gs 01E rs 01F us 07F del

The default and supported byte counts for the conversion characters are as follows:

%_c, %_p, %_u, %c One byte counts only. %d, %i, %o, %u, %X, %x Four byte default, one, two, four and eight byte counts supported. %E, %e, %f, %G, %g Eight byte default, four byte counts supported.

The amount of data interpreted by each format string is the sum of the data required by each format unit, which is the iteration count times the byte count, or the iteration count times the number of bytes required by the format if the byte count is not specified.

The input is manipulated in “blocks”, where a block is defined as the largest amount of data specified by any format string. Format strings interpreting less than an input block’s worth of data, whose last format unit both interprets some number of bytes and does not have a specified iteration count, have the iteration count incremented until the entire input block has been processed or there is not enough data remaining in the block to satisfy the format string.

If, either as a result of user specification or hexdump modifying the iteration count as described above, an iteration count is greater than one, no trailing whitespace characters are output during the last iteration.

It is an error to specify a byte count as well as multiple conversion characters or strings unless all but one of the conversion characters or strings is _a or _A.

If, as a result of the specification of the -n option or end-of-file being reached, input data only partially satisfies a format string, the input block is zero-padded sufficiently to display all available data (i.e. any format units overlapping the end of data will display some num- ber of the zero bytes).

Further output by such format strings is replaced by an equivalent number of spaces. An equivalent number of spaces is defined as the number of spaces output by an s conversion character with the same field width and precision as the original conversion character or conversion string but with any “+”, “ ”, “#” conversion flag characters removed, and ref- erencing a NULL string.

If no format strings are specified, the default display is equivalent to specifying the -x option.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use hexdump: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ hexdump -C -n 512 /dev/hda1

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_HEXDUMP
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_HEXDUMP

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_HEXDUMP`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining``CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_HEXDUMP`` when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_hexdump

The hexdump command is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_hexdump( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the hexdump has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_HEXDUMP_Command;

ls - list files in the directory

?
.. index:: ls

SYNOPSYS:

ls \[dir]

DESCRIPTION:

This command displays the contents of the specified directory. If no arguments are given, then it displays the contents of the current working directory.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

This command currently does not display information on a set of files like the POSIX ls(1). It only displays the contents of entire directories.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use ls: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ ls drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 536 Jan 01 00:00 dev/ drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 1072 Jan 01 00:00 etc/ 2 files 1608 bytes occupied SHLL [/] $ ls etc -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 102 Jan 01 00:00 passwd -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 42 Jan 01 00:00 group -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 30 Jan 01 00:00 issue -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 28 Jan 01 00:00 issue.net 4 files 202 bytes occupied SHLL [/] $ ls dev etc -rwxr-xr-x 1 rtems root 0 Jan 01 00:00 console -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 0 Jan 01 00:00 console_b

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_LS
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_LS

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_LS`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_LS when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_ls

The ls is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_ls( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the ls has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_LS_Command;

md5 - compute the Md5 hash of a file or list of files

?
.. index:: md5

SYNOPSYS:

md5 <files>

DESCRIPTION:

This command prints the MD5 of a file. You can provide one or more files on the command line and a hash for each file is printed in a single line of output.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use md5: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ md5 shell-init MD5 (shell-init) = 43b4d2e71b47db79eae679a2efeacf31

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_MD5
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_MD5

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_MD5`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_MD5 when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_md5

The df is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_main_md5( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the md5 has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_MD5_Command;

mkdir - create a directory

?
.. index:: mkdir

SYNOPSYS:

mkdir  dir \[dir1 .. dirN]

DESCRIPTION:

This command creates the set of directories in the order they are specified on the command line. If an error is encountered making one of the directories, the command will continue to attempt to create the remaining directories on the command line.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

If this command is invoked with no arguments, nothing occurs.

The user must have sufficient permissions to create the directory. For the fileio test provided with RTEMS, this means the user must login as root not rtems.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use mkdir: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] # ls drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 536 Jan 01 00:00 dev/ drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 1072 Jan 01 00:00 etc/ 2 files 1608 bytes occupied SHLL [/] # mkdir joel SHLL [/] # ls joel 0 files 0 bytes occupied SHLL [/] # cp etc/passwd joel SHLL [/] # ls joel -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 102 Jan 01 00:02 passwd 1 files 102 bytes occupied

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_MKDIR
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_MKDIR

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_MKDIR`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_MKDIR when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_mkdir

The mkdir is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_mkdir( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the mkdir has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_MKDIR_Command;

mldos - DOSFS file system format

?
.. index:: pwd

SYNOPSYS:

mkdir \[-V label] \[-s sectors/cluster] \[-r size] \[-v] path

DESCRIPTION:

This command formats a block device entry with the DOSFS file system.

-V label

-s sectors/cluster

-r size

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use mkdos: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ mkdos /dev/rda1

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_MKDOS
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_MKDOS

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_MKDOS`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_MKDOS when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_mkdos

The mkdos is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_mkdos( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the mkdos has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_MKDOS_Command;

mknod - make device special file

?
.. index:: mknod

SYNOPSYS:

mknod \[-rR] \[-F fmt] \[-g gid] \[-m mode] \[-u uid] name \[c | b]
\[driver | major] minor
mknod \[-rR] \[-F fmt] \[-g gid] \[-m mode] \[-u uid] name \[c | b]
major unit subunit
mknod \[-rR] \[-g gid] \[-m mode] \[-u uid] name \[c | b] number
mknod \[-rR] \[-g gid] \[-m mode] \[-u uid] name p

DESCRIPTION:

The mknod command creates device special files, or fifos. Normally the shell script /dev/MAKEDEV is used to create special files for commonly known devices; it executes mknod with the appropriate arguments and can make all the files required for the device.

To make nodes manually, the arguments are:

-r
Replace an existing file if its type is incorrect.
-R
Replace an existing file if its type is incorrect. Correct the mode, user and group.
-g gid
Specify the group for the device node. The gid operand may be a numeric group ID or a group name. If a group name is also a numeric group ID, the operand is used as a group name. Precede a numeric group ID with a # to stop it being treated as a name.
-m mode
Specify the mode for the device node. The mode may be absolute or symbolic, see chmod.
-u uid
Specify the user for the device node. The uid operand may be a numeric user ID or a user name. If a user name is also a numeric user ID, the operand is used as a user name. Precede a numeric user ID with a # to stop it being treated as a name.
name
Device name, for example “tty” for a termios serial device or “hd” for a disk.
b | c | p
Type of device. If the device is a block type device such as a tape or disk drive which needs both cooked and raw special files, the type is b. All other devices are character type devices, such as terminal and pseudo devices, and are type c. Specifying p creates fifo files.
driver | major
The major device number is an integer number which tells the kernel which device driver entry point to use. If the device driver is configured into the current kernel it may be specified by driver name or major number.
minor
The minor device number tells the kernel which one of several similar devices the node corresponds to; for example, it may be a specific serial port or pty.
unit and subunit
The unit and subunit numbers select a subset of a device; for example, the unit may specify a particular disk, and the subunit a partition on that disk. (Currently this form of specification is only supported by the bsdos format, for compatibility with the BSD/OS mknod).
number
A single opaque device number. Useful for netbooted computers which require device numbers packed in a format that isn’t supported by -F.

EXIT STATUS:

The mknod utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

SHLL \[/] mknod c 3 0 /dev/ttyS10

CONFIGURATION:

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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_MKNOD
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_MKNOD

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_MKNOD`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_MKNOD when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_mknod

The mknod command is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_mknod( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the mknod has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_MKNOD_Command;

ORIGIN:

The implementation and portions of the documentation for this command are from NetBSD 4.0.

mkrfs - format RFS file system

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.. index:: mkrfs

SYNOPSYS:

mkrfs \[-vsbiIo] device

DESCRIPTION:

Format the block device with the RTEMS File System (RFS). The default configuration with not parameters selects a suitable block size based on the size of the media being formatted.

The media is broken up into groups of blocks. The number of blocks in a group is based on the number of bits a block contains. The large a block the more blocks a group contains and the fewer groups in the file system.

The following options are provided:

-v
Display configuration and progress of the format.
-s
Set the block size in bytes.
-b
The number of blocks in a group. The block count must be equal or less than the number of bits in a block.
-i
Number of inodes in a group. The inode count must be equal or less than the number of bits in a block.
-I
Initialise the inodes. The default is not to initialise the inodes and to rely on the inode being initialised when allocated. Initialising the inode table helps recovery if a problem appears.
-o
Integer percentage of the media used by inodes. The default is 1%.
device
Path of the device to format.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use mkrfs: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ mkrfs /dev/fdda

CONFIGURATION:

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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_MKRFS
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_MKRFS

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_MKRFS`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_MKRFS when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_mkrfs

The mkrfs command is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_mkrfs( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for mkrfs has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_MKRFS_Command;

mount - mount disk

?
.. index:: mount

SYNOPSYS:

mount \[-t fstype] \[-r] \[-L] device path

DESCRIPTION:

The mount command will mount a block device to a mount point using the specified file system. The files systems are:

  • msdos - MSDOS File System
  • tftp - TFTP Network File System
  • ftp - FTP Network File System
  • nfs - Network File System
  • rfs - RTEMS File System

When the file system type is ’msdos’ or ’rfs’ the driver is a "block device driver" node present in the file system. The driver is ignored with the ’tftp’ and ’ftp’ file systems. For the ’nfs’ file system the driver is the ’host:/path’ string that described NFS host and the exported file system path.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

The mount point must exist.

The services offered by each file-system vary. For example you cannot list the directory of a TFTP file-system as this server is not provided in the TFTP protocol. You need to check each file-system’s documentation for the services provided.

EXAMPLES:

Mount the Flash Disk driver to the ’/fd’ mount point: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ mount -t msdos /dev/flashdisk0 /fd

Mount the NFS file system exported path ’bar’ by host ’foo’: .. code:: c

$ mount -t nfs foo:/bar /nfs

Mount the TFTP file system on ’/tftp’: .. code:: c

$ mount -t tftp /tftp

To access the TFTP files on server ’10.10.10.10’: .. code:: c

$ cat /tftp/10.10.10.10/test.txt

CONFIGURATION:

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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_MOUNT
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_MOUNT

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_MOUNT`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_MOUNT when all shell commands have been configured.

The mount command includes references to file-system code. If you do not wish to include file-system that you do not use do not define the mount command support for that file-system. The file-system mount command defines are:

  • msdos - CONFIGURE_SHELL_MOUNT_MSDOS
  • tftp - CONFIGURE_SHELL_MOUNT_TFTP
  • ftp - CONFIGURE_SHELL_MOUNT_FTP
  • nfs - CONFIGURE_SHELL_MOUNT_NFS
  • rfs - CONFIGURE_SHELL_MOUNT_RFS

An example configuration is: .. code:: c

#define CONFIGURE_SHELL_MOUNT_MSDOS #ifdef RTEMS_NETWORKING #define CONFIGURE_SHELL_MOUNT_TFTP #define CONFIGURE_SHELL_MOUNT_FTP #define CONFIGURE_SHELL_MOUNT_NFS #define CONFIGURE_SHELL_MOUNT_RFS #endif

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_mount

The mount is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_mount( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the mount has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_MOUNT_Command;

mv - move files

?
.. index:: mv

SYNOPSYS:

mv \[-fiv] source_file target_file
mv \[-fiv] source_file... target_file

DESCRIPTION:

In its first form, the mv utility renames the file named by the source operand to the destination path named by the target operand. This form is assumed when the last operand does not name an already existing directory.

In its second form, mv moves each file named by a source operand to a destination file in the existing directory named by the directory operand. The destination path for each operand is the pathname produced by the concatenation of the last operand, a slash, and the final pathname component of the named file.

The following options are available:

-f
Do not prompt for confirmation before overwriting the destination path.
-i
Causes mv to write a prompt to standard error before moving a file that would overwrite an existing file. If the response from the standard input begins with the character ’y’, the move is attempted.
-v
Cause mv to be verbose, showing files as they are processed.

The last of any -f or -i options is the one which affects mv’s behavior.

It is an error for any of the source operands to specify a nonexistent file or directory.

It is an error for the source operand to specify a directory if the target exists and is not a directory.

If the destination path does not have a mode which permits writing, mv prompts the user for confirmation as specified for the -i option.

Should the rename call fail because source and target are on different file systems, mv will remove the destination file, copy the source file to the destination, and then remove the source. The effect is roughly equivalent to: .. code:: c

rm -f destination_path && \ cp -PRp source_file destination_path && \ rm -rf source_file

EXIT STATUS:

The mv utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

SHLL \[/] mv /dev/console /dev/con1

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_MV
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_MV

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_MV`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_MV when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_main_mv

The mv command is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_main_mv( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the mv has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_MV_Command;

ORIGIN:

The implementation and portions of the documentation for this command are from NetBSD 4.0.

pwd - print work directory

?
.. index:: pwd

SYNOPSYS:

pwd

DESCRIPTION:

This command prints the fully qualified filename of the current working directory.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use pwd: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ pwd / SHLL [/] $ cd dev SHLL [/dev] $ pwd /dev

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_PWD
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_PWD

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_PWD`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_PWD when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_pwd

The pwd is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_pwd( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the pwd has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_PWD_Command;

rmdir - remove empty directories

?
.. index:: rmdir

SYNOPSYS:

rmdir  \[dir1 .. dirN]

DESCRIPTION:

This command removes the specified set of directories. If no directories are provided on the command line, no actions are taken.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

This command is a implemented using the rmdir(2) system call and all reasons that call may fail apply to this command.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use rmdir: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] # mkdir joeldir SHLL [/] # rmdir joeldir SHLL [/] # ls joeldir joeldir: No such file or directory.

CONFIGURATION:

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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_RMDIR
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_RMDIR

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_RMDIR`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_RMDIR when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_rmdir

The rmdir is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_rmdir( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the rmdir has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_RMDIR_Command;

rm - remove files

?
.. index:: rm

SYNOPSYS:

rm file1 \[file2 ... fileN]

DESCRIPTION:

This command deletes a name from the filesystem. If the specified file name was the last link to a file and there are no open file descriptor references to that file, then it is deleted and the associated space in the file system is made available for subsequent use.

If the filename specified was the last link to a file but there are open file descriptor references to it, then the file will remain in existence until the last file descriptor referencing it is closed.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use rm: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] # cp /etc/passwd tmpfile SHLL [/] # cat tmpfile root:*:0:0:root::/:/bin/sh rtems:*:1:1:RTEMS Application::/:/bin/sh tty:!:2:2:tty owner::/:/bin/false SHLL [/] # rm tmpfile SHLL [/] # cat tmpfile cat: tmpfile: No such file or directory

CONFIGURATION:

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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_RM
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_RM

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_RM`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_RM when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_main_rm

The rm is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_main_rm( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the rm has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_RM_Command;

umask - set file mode creation mask

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.. index:: umask

SYNOPSYS:

umask \[new_umask]

DESCRIPTION:

This command sets the user file creation mask to new_umask. The argument new_umask may be octal, hexadecimal, or decimal.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

This command does not currently support symbolic mode masks.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use umask: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ umask 022 SHLL [/] $ umask 0666 0666 SHLL [/] $ umask 0666

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_UMASK
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_UMASK

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_UMASK`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_UMASK when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_umask

The umask is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_umask( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the umask has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_UMASK_Command;

unmount - unmount disk

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.. index:: unmount

SYNOPSYS:

unmount path

DESCRIPTION:

This command unmounts the device at the specified path.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

TBD - Surely there must be some warnings to go here.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use unmount: .. code:: c

EXAMPLE_TBD

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_UNMOUNT
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_UNMOUNT

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_UNMOUNT`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_UNMOUNT when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_unmount

The unmount is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_unmount( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the unmount has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_UNMOUNT_Command;

Memory Commands

Introduction

The RTEMS shell has the following memory commands:

  • mdump - Display contents of memory
  • wdump - Display contents of memory (word)
  • ldump - Display contents of memory (longword)
  • medit - Modify contents of memory
  • mfill - File memory with pattern
  • mmove - Move contents of memory
  • malloc - Obtain information on C Program Heap

Commands

This section details the Memory Commands available. A subsection is dedicated to each of the commands and describes the behavior and configuration of that command as well as providing an example usage.

mdump - display contents of memory

?
.. index:: mdump

SYNOPSYS:

mdump \[address \[length \[size]]]

DESCRIPTION:

This command displays the contents of memory at the address and length in size byte units specified on the command line.

When size is not provided, it defaults to 1 byte units. Values of 1, 2, and 4 are valid; all others will cause an error to be reported.

When length is not provided, it defaults to 320 which is twenty lines of output with sixteen bytes of output per line.

When address is not provided, it defaults to 0x00000000.

EXIT STATUS:

This command always returns 0 to indicate success.

NOTES:

Dumping memory from a non-existent address may result in an unrecoverable program fault.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use mdump: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ mdump 0x10000 32 0x0001000000 00 00 00 00 00 00 00-00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ................ 0x0001001000 00 00 00 00 00 00 00-00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ................ SHLL [/] $ mdump 0x02000000 32 0x02000000A1 48 00 00 29 00 80 33-81 C5 22 BC A6 10 21 00 .H..)..3.."...!. 0x02000010A1 48 00 00 29 00 80 33-81 C5 22 BC A6 10 21 01 .H..)..3.."...!. SHLL [/] $ mdump 0x02001000 32 0x0200100003 00 80 00 82 10 60 00-81 98 40 00 83 48 00 00 ......`.....H.. 0x0200101084 00 60 01 84 08 A0 07-86 10 20 01 87 28 C0 02 ..`....... ..(..

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_MDUMP
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_MDUMP

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_MDUMP`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_MDUMP when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_mdump

The mdump is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_mdump( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the mdump has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_MDUMP_Command;

wdump - display contents of memory (word)

?
.. index:: wdump

SYNOPSYS:

wdump \[address \[length]]

DESCRIPTION:

This command displays the contents of memory at the address and length in bytes specified on the command line.

This command is equivalent to mdump address length 2.

When length is not provided, it defaults to 320 which is twenty lines of output with eight words of output per line.

When address is not provided, it defaults to 0x00000000.

EXIT STATUS:

This command always returns 0 to indicate success.

NOTES:

Dumping memory from a non-existent address may result in an unrecoverable program fault.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use wdump: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ wdump 0x02010000 32 0x02010000 0201 08D8 0201 08C0-0201 08AC 0201 0874 ...............t 0x02010010 0201 0894 0201 0718-0201 0640 0201 0798 ...............

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_WDUMP
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_WDUMP

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_WDUMP`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_WDUMP when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_wdump

The wdump is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_wdump( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the wdump has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_WDUMP_Command;

ldump - display contents of memory (longword)

?
.. index:: ldump

SYNOPSYS:

ldump \[address \[length]]

DESCRIPTION:

This command displays the contents of memory at the address and length in bytes specified on the command line.

This command is equivalent to mdump address length 4.

When length is not provided, it defaults to 320 which is twenty lines of output with four longwords of output per line.

When address is not provided, it defaults to 0x00000000.

EXIT STATUS:

This command always returns 0 to indicate success.

NOTES:

Dumping memory from a non-existent address may result in an unrecoverable program fault.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use ldump: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ ldump 0x02010000 32 0x02010000 020108D8 020108C0-020108AC 02010874 ...............t 0x02010010 020 0894 02010718-02010640 02010798 ...............

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_LDUMP
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_LDUMP

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_LDUMP`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_LDUMP when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_ldump

The ldump is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_ldump( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the ldump has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_LDUMP_Command;

medit - modify contents of memory

?
.. index:: medit

SYNOPSYS:

medit address value1 \[value2 ... valueN]

DESCRIPTION:

This command is used to modify the contents of the memory starting at address using the octets specified by the parameters``value1`` through valueN.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

Dumping memory from a non-existent address may result in an unrecoverable program fault.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use medit: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ mdump 0x02000000 32 0x02000000 A1 48 00 00 29 00 80 33-81 C5 22 BC A6 10 21 00 .H..)..3.."...!. 0x02000010 A1 48 00 00 29 00 80 33-81 C5 22 BC A6 10 21 01 .H..)..3.."...!. SHLL [/] $ medit 0x02000000 0x01 0x02 0x03 0x04 0x05 0x06 0x07 0x08 0x09 SHLL [/] $ mdump 0x02000000 32 0x02000000 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08-09 00 22 BC A6 10 21 00 .........."...!. 0x02000010 A1 48 00 00 29 00 80 33-81 C5 22 BC A6 10 21 01 .H..)..3.."...!.

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_MEDIT
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_MEDIT

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_MEDIT`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_MEDIT when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_medit

The medit is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_medit( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the medit has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_MEDIT_Command;

mfill - file memory with pattern

?
.. index:: mfill

SYNOPSYS:

mfill address length value

DESCRIPTION:

This command is used to fill the memory starting at address for the specified length in octets when the specified at``value``.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

Filling a non-existent address range may result in an unrecoverable program fault. Similarly overwriting interrupt vector tables, code space or critical data areas can be fatal as shown in the example.

EXAMPLES:

In this example, the address used (0x23d89a0) as the base address of the filled area is the end of the stack for the Idle thread. This address was determined manually using gdb and is very specific to this application and BSP. The first command in this example is an mdump to display the initial contents of this memory. We see that the first 8 bytes are 0xA5 which is the pattern used as a guard by the Stack Checker. On the first context switch after the pattern is overwritten by the mfill command, the Stack Checker detect the pattern has been corrupted and generates a fatal error. .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ mdump 0x23d89a0 16 0x023D89A0 A5 A5 A5 A5 A5 A5 A5 A5-FE ED F0 0D 0B AD 0D 06 ................ SHLL [/] $ mfill 0x23d89a0 13 0x5a SHLL [/] $ BLOWN STACK!!! Offending task(0x23D4418): id=0x09010001; name=0x0203D908 stack covers range 0x23D89A0 - 0x23D99AF (4112 bytes) Damaged pattern begins at 0x023D89A8 and is 16 bytes long

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_MFILL
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_MFILL

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_MFILL`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_MFILL when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_mfill

The mfill is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_mfill( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the mfill has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_MFILL_Command;

mmove - move contents of memory

?
.. index:: mmove

SYNOPSYS:

mmove dst src length

DESCRIPTION:

This command is used to copy the contents of the memory starting at src to the memory located at dst for the specified length in octets.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use mmove: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ mdump 0x023d99a0 16 0x023D99A0 A5 A5 A5 A5 A5 A5 A5 A5-A5 A5 A5 A5 A5 A5 A5 A5 ................ SHLL [/] $ mdump 0x02000000 16 0x02000000 A1 48 00 00 29 00 80 33-81 C5 22 BC A6 10 21 00 .H..)..3.."...!. SHLL [/] $ mmove 0x023d99a0 0x02000000 13 SHLL [/] $ mdump 0x023d99a0 16 0x023D99A0 A1 48 00 00 29 00 80 33-81 C5 22 BC A6 A5 A5 A5 .H..)..3..".....

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_MMOVE
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_MMOVE

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_MMOVE`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_MMOVE when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_mmove

The mmove is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_mmove( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the mmove has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_MMOVE_Command;

malloc - obtain information on C program heap

?
.. index:: malloc

SYNOPSYS:

malloc \[walk]

DESCRIPTION:

This command prints information about the current state of the C Program Heap used by the malloc() family of calls if no or invalid options are passed to the command. This includes the following information:

  • Number of free blocks
  • Largest free block
  • Total bytes free
  • Number of used blocks
  • Largest used block
  • Total bytes used
  • Size of the allocatable area in bytes
  • Minimum free size ever in bytes
  • Maximum number of free blocks ever
  • Maximum number of blocks searched ever
  • Lifetime number of bytes allocated
  • Lifetime number of bytes freed
  • Total number of searches
  • Total number of successful allocations
  • Total number of failed allocations
  • Total number of successful frees
  • Total number of successful resizes

When the subcommand walk is specified, then a heap walk will be performed and information about each block is printed out.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use the malloc command. .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ malloc C Program Heap and RTEMS Workspace are the same. Number of free blocks: 2 Largest free block: 266207504 Total bytes free: 266208392 Number of used blocks: 167 Largest used block: 16392 Total bytes used: 83536 Size of the allocatable area in bytes: 266291928 Minimum free size ever in bytes: 266207360 Maximum number of free blocks ever: 6 Maximum number of blocks searched ever: 5 Lifetime number of bytes allocated: 91760 Lifetime number of bytes freed: 8224 Total number of searches: 234 Total number of successful allocations: 186 Total number of failed allocations: 0 Total number of successful frees: 19 Total number of successful resizes: 0 SHLL [/] $ malloc walk malloc walk PASS[0]: page size 8, min block size 48 area begin 0x00210210, area end 0x0FFFC000 first block 0x00210214, last block 0x0FFFBFDC first free 0x00228084, last free 0x00228354 PASS[0]: block 0x00210214: size 88 ... PASS[0]: block 0x00220154: size 144 PASS[0]: block 0x002201E4: size 168, prev 0x002205BC, next 0x00228354 (= last free) PASS[0]: block 0x0022028C: size 168, prev_size 168 ... PASS[0]: block 0x00226E7C: size 4136 PASS[0]: block 0x00227EA4: size 408, prev 0x00228084 (= first free), next 0x00226CE4 PASS[0]: block 0x0022803C: size 72, prev_size 408 PASS[0]: block 0x00228084: size 648, prev 0x0020F75C (= head), next 0x00227EA4 PASS[0]: block 0x0022830C: size 72, prev_size 648 PASS[0]: block 0x00228354: size 266157192, prev 0x002201E4, next 0x0020F75C (= tail) PASS[0]: block 0x0FFFBFDC: size 4028711480, prev_size 266157192

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_MALLOC
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_MALLOC

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_MALLOC`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_MALLOC when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_malloc

The malloc is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_malloc( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the malloc has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_MALLOC_Command;

RTEMS Specific Commands

Introduction

The RTEMS shell has the following rtems commands:

  • shutdown - Shutdown the system
  • cpuuse - print or reset per thread cpu usage
  • stackuse - print per thread stack usage
  • perioduse - print or reset per period usage
  • profreport - print a profiling report
  • wkspace - Display information on Executive Workspace
  • config - Show the system configuration.
  • itask - List init tasks for the system
  • extension - Display information about extensions
  • task - Display information about tasks
  • queue - Display information about message queues
  • sema - display information about semaphores
  • region - display information about regions
  • part - display information about partitions
  • object - Display information about RTEMS objects
  • driver - Display the RTEMS device driver table
  • dname - Displays information about named drivers
  • pthread - Displays information about POSIX threads

Commands

This section details the RTEMS Specific Commands available. A subsection is dedicated to each of the commands and describes the behavior and configuration of that command as well as providing an example usage.

shutdown - Shutdown the system

?
.. index:: shutdown

SYNOPSYS:

shutdown

DESCRIPTION:

This command is used to shutdown the RTEMS application.

EXIT STATUS:

This command does not return.

NOTES:

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use shutdown: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ shutdown System shutting down at user request

The user will not see another prompt and the system will shutdown.

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_SHUTDOWN
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_SHUTDOWN

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_SHUTDOWN`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_SHUTDOWN when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

The configuration structure for the shutdown has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_SHUTDOWN_Command;

cpuuse - print or reset per thread cpu usage

?
.. index:: cpuuse

SYNOPSYS:

cpuuse \[-r]

DESCRIPTION:

This command may be used to print a report on the per thread cpu usage or to reset the per thread CPU usage statistics. When invoked with the -r option, the CPU usage statistics are reset.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

The granularity of the timing information reported is dependent upon the BSP and the manner in which RTEMS was built. In the default RTEMS configuration, if the BSP supports nanosecond granularity timestamps, then the information reported will be highly accurate. Otherwise, the accuracy of the information reported is limited by the clock tick quantum.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use cpuuse: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ cpuuse CPU Usage by thread ID NAME SECONDS PERCENT 0x09010001 IDLE 49.745393 98.953 0x0a010001 UI1 0.000000 0.000 0x0a010002 SHLL 0.525928 1.046 Time since last CPU Usage reset 50.271321 seconds SHLL [/] $ cpuuse -r Resetting CPU Usage information SHLL [/] $ cpuuse CPU Usage by thread ID NAME SECONDS PERCENT 0x09010001 IDLE 0.000000 0.000 0x0a010001 UI1 0.000000 0.000 0x0a010002 SHLL 0.003092 100.000 Time since last CPU Usage reset 0.003092 seconds

In the above example, the system had set idle for nearly a minute when the first report was generated. The``cpuuse -r`` and cpuuse commands were pasted from another window so were executed with no gap between. In the second report, only the shell thread has run since the CPU Usage was reset. It has consumed approximately 3.092 milliseconds of CPU time processing the two commands and generating the output.

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_CPUUSE
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_CPUUSE

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_CPUUSE`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_CPUUSE when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_cpuuse

The cpuuse is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_cpuuse( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the cpuuse has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_CPUUSE_Command;

stackuse - print per thread stack usage

?
.. index:: stackuse

SYNOPSYS:

stackuse

DESCRIPTION:

This command prints a Stack Usage Report for all of the tasks and threads in the system. On systems which support it, the usage of the interrupt stack is also included in the report.

EXIT STATUS:

This command always succeeds and returns 0.

NOTES:

The CONFIGURE_STACK_CHECKER_ENABLED confdefs.h constant must be defined when the application is configured for this command to have any information to report.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use stackuse: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ stackuse Stack usage by thread ID NAME LOW HIGH CURRENT AVAILABLE USED 0x09010001 IDLE 0x023d89a0 - 0x023d99af 0x023d9760 4096 608 0x0a010001 UI1 0x023d9f30 - 0x023daf3f 0x023dad18 4096 1804 0x0a010002 SHLL 0x023db4c0 - 0x023df4cf 0x023de9d0 16384 5116 0xffffffff INTR 0x023d2760 - 0x023d375f 0x00000000 4080 316

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_STACKUSE
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_STACKUSE

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_STACKUSE`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_STACKUSE when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_stackuse

The stackuse is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_stackuse( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the stackuse has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_STACKUSE_Command;

perioduse - print or reset per period usage

?
.. index:: perioduse

SYNOPSYS:

perioduse \[-r]

DESCRIPTION:

This command may be used to print a statistics report on the rate monotonic periods in the application or to reset the rate monotonic period usage statistics. When invoked with the -r option, the usage statistics are reset.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

The granularity of the timing information reported is dependent upon the BSP and the manner in which RTEMS was built. In the default RTEMS configuration, if the BSP supports nanosecond granularity timestamps, then the information reported will be highly accurate. Otherwise, the accuracy of the information reported is limited by the clock tick quantum.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use perioduse: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ perioduse Period information by period --- CPU times are in seconds --- --- Wall times are in seconds --- ID OWNER COUNT MISSED CPU TIME WALL TIME MIN/MAX/AVG MIN/MAX/AVG 0x42010001 TA1 502 0 0:000039/0:042650/0:004158 0:000039/0:020118/0:002848 0x42010002 TA2 502 0 0:000041/0:042657/0:004309 0:000041/0:020116/0:002848 0x42010003 TA3 501 0 0:000041/0:041564/0:003653 0:000041/0:020003/0:002814 0x42010004 TA4 501 0 0:000043/0:044075/0:004911 0:000043/0:020004/0:002814 0x42010005 TA5 10 0 0:000065/0:005413/0:002739 0:000065/1:000457/0:041058 MIN/MAX/AVG MIN/MAX/AVG SHLL [/] $ perioduse -r Resetting Period Usage information SHLL [/] $ perioduse --- CPU times are in seconds --- --- Wall times are in seconds --- ID OWNER COUNT MISSED CPU TIME WALL TIME MIN/MAX/AVG MIN/MAX/AVG 0x42010001 TA1 0 0 0x42010002 TA2 0 0 0x42010003 TA3 0 0 0x42010004 TA4 0 0 0x42010005 TA5 0 0

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_PERIODUSE
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_PERIODUSE

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_PERIODUSE`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_PERIODUSE when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_perioduse

The perioduse is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_perioduse( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the perioduse has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_PERIODUSE_Command;

profreport - print a profiling report

?
.. index:: profreport

SYNOPSYS:

profreport

DESCRIPTION:

This command may be used to print a profiling report.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0.

NOTES:

Profiling must be enabled at build configuration time to get profiling information.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use profreport: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ profreport <ProfilingReport name="Shell"> <PerCPUProfilingReport processorIndex="0"> <MaxThreadDispatchDisabledTime unit="ns">10447</MaxThreadDispatchDisabledTime> <MeanThreadDispatchDisabledTime unit="ns">2</MeanThreadDispatchDisabledTime> <TotalThreadDispatchDisabledTime unit="ns">195926627</TotalThreadDispatchDisabledTime> <ThreadDispatchDisabledCount>77908688</ThreadDispatchDisabledCount> <MaxInterruptDelay unit="ns">0</MaxInterruptDelay> <MaxInterruptTime unit="ns">688</MaxInterruptTime> <MeanInterruptTime unit="ns">127</MeanInterruptTime> <TotalInterruptTime unit="ns">282651157</TotalInterruptTime> <InterruptCount>2215855</InterruptCount> </PerCPUProfilingReport> <PerCPUProfilingReport processorIndex="1"> <MaxThreadDispatchDisabledTime unit="ns">9053</MaxThreadDispatchDisabledTime> <MeanThreadDispatchDisabledTime unit="ns">41</MeanThreadDispatchDisabledTime> <TotalThreadDispatchDisabledTime unit="ns">3053830335</TotalThreadDispatchDisabledTime> <ThreadDispatchDisabledCount>73334202</ThreadDispatchDisabledCount> <MaxInterruptDelay unit="ns">0</MaxInterruptDelay> <MaxInterruptTime unit="ns">57</MaxInterruptTime> <MeanInterruptTime unit="ns">35</MeanInterruptTime> <TotalInterruptTime unit="ns">76980203</TotalInterruptTime> <InterruptCount>2141179</InterruptCount> </PerCPUProfilingReport> <SMPLockProfilingReport name="SMP lock stats"> <MaxAcquireTime unit="ns">608</MaxAcquireTime> <MaxSectionTime unit="ns">1387</MaxSectionTime> <MeanAcquireTime unit="ns">112</MeanAcquireTime> <MeanSectionTime unit="ns">338</MeanSectionTime> <TotalAcquireTime unit="ns">119031</TotalAcquireTime> <TotalSectionTime unit="ns">357222</TotalSectionTime> <UsageCount>1055</UsageCount> <ContentionCount initialQueueLength="0">1055</ContentionCount> <ContentionCount initialQueueLength="1">0</ContentionCount> <ContentionCount initialQueueLength="2">0</ContentionCount> <ContentionCount initialQueueLength="3">0</ContentionCount> </SMPLockProfilingReport> <SMPLockProfilingReport name="Giant"> <MaxAcquireTime unit="ns">4186</MaxAcquireTime> <MaxSectionTime unit="ns">7575</MaxSectionTime> <MeanAcquireTime unit="ns">160</MeanAcquireTime> <MeanSectionTime unit="ns">183</MeanSectionTime> <TotalAcquireTime unit="ns">1772793111</TotalAcquireTime> <TotalSectionTime unit="ns">2029733879</TotalSectionTime> <UsageCount>11039140</UsageCount> <ContentionCount initialQueueLength="0">11037655</ContentionCount> <ContentionCount initialQueueLength="1">1485</ContentionCount> <ContentionCount initialQueueLength="2">0</ContentionCount> <ContentionCount initialQueueLength="3">0</ContentionCount> </SMPLockProfilingReport> </ProfilingReport>

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_PROFREPORT
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_PROFREPORT

When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_PROFREPORT`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_PROFREPORT when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

The configuration structure for the profreport has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_PROFREPORT_Command;

wkspace - display information on executive workspace

?
.. index:: wkspace

SYNOPSYS:

wkspace

DESCRIPTION:

This command prints information on the current state of the RTEMS Executive Workspace reported. This includes the following information:

  • Number of free blocks
  • Largest free block
  • Total bytes free
  • Number of used blocks
  • Largest used block
  • Total bytes used

EXIT STATUS:

This command always succeeds and returns 0.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use wkspace: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ wkspace Number of free blocks: 1 Largest free block: 132336 Total bytes free: 132336 Number of used blocks: 36 Largest used block: 16408 Total bytes used: 55344

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_WKSPACE
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_WKSPACE

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_WKSPACE`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_WKSPACE when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_wkspace

The wkspace is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_wkspace( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the wkspace has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_WKSPACE_Command;

config - show the system configuration.

?
.. index:: config

SYNOPSYS:

config

DESCRIPTION:

This command display information about the RTEMS Configuration.

EXIT STATUS:

This command always succeeds and returns 0.

NOTES:

At this time, it does not report every configuration parameter. This is an area in which user submissions or sponsorship of a developer would be appreciated.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use config: .. code:: c

INITIAL (startup) Configuration Info

WORKSPACE start: 0x23d22e0; size: 0x2dd20 TIME usec/tick: 10000; tick/timeslice: 50; tick/sec: 100 MAXIMUMS tasks: 20; timers: 0; sems: 50; que's: 20; ext's: 1 partitions: 0; regions: 0; ports: 0; periods: 0

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_CONFIG
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_CONFIG

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_CONFIG`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_CONFIG when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_config

The config is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_config( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the config has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_CONFIG_Command;

itask - list init tasks for the system

?
.. index:: itask

SYNOPSYS:

itask

DESCRIPTION:

This command prints a report on the set of initialization tasks and threads in the system.

EXIT STATUS:

This command always succeeds and returns 0.

NOTES:

At this time, it includes only Classic API Initialization Tasks. This is an area in which user submissions or sponsorship of a developer would be appreciated.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use itask: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ itask # NAME ENTRY ARGUMENT PRIO MODES ATTRIBUTES STACK SIZE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 0 UI1 [0x2002258] 0 [0x0] 1 nP DEFAULT 4096 [0x1000]

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_ITASK
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_ITASK

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_ITASK`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_ITASK when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_itask

The itask is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_itask( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the itask has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_ITASK_Command;

extension - display information about extensions

?
.. index:: extension

SYNOPSYS:

extension \[id \[id ...] ]

DESCRIPTION:

When invoked with no arguments, this command prints information on the set of User Extensions currently active in the system.

If invoked with a set of ids as arguments, then just those objects are included in the information printed.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of using the extension command on a system with no user extensions. .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ extension ID NAME ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_EXTENSION
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_EXTENSION

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_EXTENSION`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_EXTENSION when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_extension

The extension is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_extension( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the extension has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_EXTENSION_Command;

task - display information about tasks

?
.. index:: task

SYNOPSYS:

task \[id \[id ...] ]

DESCRIPTION:

When invoked with no arguments, this command prints information on the set of Classic API Tasks currently active in the system.

If invoked with a set of ids as arguments, then just those objects are included in the information printed.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use the task on an application with just two Classic API tasks: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ task ID NAME PRIO STAT MODES EVENTS WAITID WAITARG NOTES ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 0a010001 UI1 1 SUSP P:T:nA NONE 0a010002 SHLL 100 READY P:T:nA NONE

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_TASK
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_TASK

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_TASK`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_TASK when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_task

The task is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_task( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the task has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_TASK_Command;

queue - display information about message queues

?
.. index:: queue

SYNOPSYS:

queue \[id \[id ... ] ]

DESCRIPTION:

When invoked with no arguments, this command prints information on the set of Classic API Message Queues currently active in the system.

If invoked with a set of ids as arguments, then just those objects are included in the information printed.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of using the queue command on a system with no Classic API Message Queues. .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ queue ID NAME ATTRIBUTES PEND MAXPEND MAXSIZE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CONFIGURATION:

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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_QUEUE
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_QUEUE

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_QUEUE`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_QUEUE when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

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.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_queue

The queue is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_queue( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the queue has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_QUEUE_Command;

sema - display information about semaphores

?
.. index:: sema

SYNOPSYS:

sema \[id \[id ... ] ]

DESCRIPTION:

When invoked with no arguments, this command prints information on the set of Classic API Semaphores currently active in the system.

If invoked with a set of objects ids as arguments, then just those objects are included in the information printed.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use sema: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ sema ID NAME ATTR PRICEIL CURR_CNT HOLDID ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1a010001 LBIO PR:BI:IN 0 1 00000000 1a010002 TRmi PR:BI:IN 0 1 00000000 1a010003 LBI00 PR:BI:IN 0 1 00000000 1a010004 TRia PR:BI:IN 0 1 00000000 1a010005 TRoa PR:BI:IN 0 1 00000000 1a010006 TRxa <assoc.c: BAD NAME> 0 0 09010001 1a010007 LBI01 PR:BI:IN 0 1 00000000 1a010008 LBI02 PR:BI:IN 0 1 00000000

CONFIGURATION:

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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_SEMA
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_SEMA

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_SEMA`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_SEMA when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

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.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_sema

The sema is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_sema( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the sema has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_SEMA_Command;

region - display information about regions

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.. index:: region

SYNOPSYS:

region \[id \[id ... ] ]

DESCRIPTION:

When invoked with no arguments, this command prints information on the set of Classic API Regions currently active in the system.

If invoked with a set of object ids as arguments, then just those object are included in the information printed.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of using the region command on a system with no user extensions. .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ region ID NAME ATTR STARTADDR LENGTH PAGE_SIZE USED_BLOCKS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CONFIGURATION:

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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_REGION
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_REGION

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_REGION`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_REGION when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

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.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_region

The region is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_region( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the region has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_REGION_Command;

part - display information about partitions

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.. index:: part

SYNOPSYS:

part \[id \[id ... ] ]

DESCRIPTION:

When invoked with no arguments, this command prints information on the set of Classic API Partitions currently active in the system.

If invoked with a set of object ids as arguments, then just those objects are included in the information printed.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of using the part command on a system with no user extensions. .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ part ID NAME ATTR STARTADDR LENGTH BUF_SIZE USED_BLOCKS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CONFIGURATION:

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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_PART
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_PART

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_PART`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_PART when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

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.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_part

The part is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_part( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the part has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_PART_Command;

object - display information about rtems objects

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.. index:: object

SYNOPSYS:

object \[id \[id ...] ]

DESCRIPTION:

When invoked with a set of object ids as arguments, then a report on those objects is printed.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use object: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ object 0a010001 1a010002 ID NAME PRIO STAT MODES EVENTS WAITID WAITARG NOTES ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 0a010001 UI1 1 SUSP P:T:nA NONE ID NAME ATTR PRICEIL CURR_CNT HOLDID ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1a010002 TRmi PR:BI:IN 0 1 00000000

CONFIGURATION:

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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_OBJECT
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_OBJECT

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_OBJECT`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_OBJECT when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_object

The object is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_object( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the object has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_OBJECT_Command;

driver - display the rtems device driver table

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.. index:: driver

SYNOPSYS:

driver [ major [ major ... ] ]

DESCRIPTION:

When invoked with no arguments, this command prints information on the set of Device Drivers currently active in the system.

If invoked with a set of major numbers as arguments, then just those Device Drivers are included in the information printed.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use driver: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ driver Major Entry points ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 0 init: [0x200256c]; control: [0x20024c8] open: [0x2002518]; close: [0x2002504] read: [0x20024f0]; write: [0x20024dc] 1 init: [0x20023fc]; control: [0x2002448] open: [0x0]; close: [0x0] read: [0x0]; write: [0x0] SHLL [/] $

CONFIGURATION:

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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_DRIVER
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_DRIVER

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_DRIVER`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_DRIVER when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_driver

The driver is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_driver( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the driver has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_DRIVER_Command;

dname - displays information about named drivers

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.. index:: dname

SYNOPSYS:

dname

DESCRIPTION:

This command XXX

WARNING! XXX This command does not appear to work as of 27 February 2008.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use dname: .. code:: c

EXAMPLE_TBD

CONFIGURATION:

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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_DNAME
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_DNAME

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_DNAME`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_DNAME when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_dname

The dname is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_dname( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the dname has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_DNAME_Command;

pthread - display information about POSIX threads

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.. index:: pthread

SYNOPSYS:

pthread \[id \[id ...] ]

DESCRIPTION:

When invoked with no arguments, this command prints information on the set of POSIX API threads currently active in the system.

If invoked with a set of ids as arguments, then just those objects are included in the information printed.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

This command is only available when the POSIX API is configured.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use the task on an application with four POSIX threads: .. code:: c

SHLL [/] $ pthread ID NAME PRI STATE MODES EVENTS WAITID WAITARG NOTES ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 0b010002 Main 133 READY P:T:nA NONE 43010001 0x7b1148 0b010003 ISR 133 Wcvar P:T:nA NONE 43010003 0x7b1148 0b01000c 133 READY P:T:nA NONE 33010002 0x7b1148 0b01000d 133 Wmutex P:T:nA NONE 33010002 0x7b1148

CONFIGURATION:

This command is part of the monitor commands which are always available in the shell.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

This command is not directly available for invocation.

Network Commands

Introduction

The RTEMS shell has the following network commands:

  • netstats - obtain network statistics
  • ifconfig - configure a network interface
  • route - show or manipulate the IP routing table
  • ping - ping a host or IP address

Commands

This section details the Network Commands available. A subsection is dedicated to each of the commands and describes the behavior and configuration of that command as well as providing an example usage.

netstats - obtain network statistics

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.. index:: netstats

SYNOPSYS:

netstats \[-Aimfpcut]

DESCRIPTION:

This command is used to display various types of network statistics. The information displayed can be specified using command line arguments in various combinations. The arguments are interpreted as follows:

-A
print All statistics
-i
print Inet Routes
-m
print MBUF Statistics
-f
print IF Statistics
-p
print IP Statistics
-c
print ICMP Statistics
-u
print UDP Statistics
-t
print TCP Statistics

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

NONE

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use netstats:

The following is an example of using the netstats command to print the IP routing table: .. code:: c

[/] $ netstats -i Destination Gateway/Mask/Hw Flags Refs Use Expire Interface default 192.168.1.14 UGS 0 0 0 eth1 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 1 eth1 192.168.1.14 00:A0:C8:1C:EE:28 UHL 1 0 1219 eth1 192.168.1.51 00:1D:7E:0C:D0:7C UHL 0 840 1202 eth1 192.168.1.151 00:1C:23:B2:0F:BB UHL 1 23 1219 eth1

The following is an example of using the netstats command to print the MBUF statistics: .. code:: c

[/] $ netstats -m ************ MBUF STATISTICS ************ mbufs:2048 clusters: 128 free: 63 drops: 0 waits: 0 drains: 0 free:1967 data:79 header:2 socket:0 pcb:0 rtable:0 htable:0 atable:0 soname:0 soopts:0 ftable:0 rights:0 ifaddr:0 control:0 oobdata:0

The following is an example of using the netstats command to print the print the interface statistics: .. code:: c

[/] $ netstats -f ************ INTERFACE STATISTICS ************ ***** eth1 ***** Ethernet Address: 00:04:9F:00:5B:21 Address:192.168.1.244 Broadcast Address:192.168.1.255 Net mask:255.255.255.0 Flags: Up Broadcast Running Active Multicast Send queue limit:50 length:1 Dropped:0 Rx Interrupts:889 Not First:0 Not Last:0 Giant:0 Non-octet:0 Bad CRC:0 Overrun:0 Collision:0 Tx Interrupts:867 Deferred:0 Late Collision:0 Retransmit Limit:0 Underrun:0 Misaligned:0

The following is an example of using the netstats command to print the print IP statistics: .. code:: c

[/] $ netstats -p ************ IP Statistics ************ total packets received 894 packets rcvd for unreachable dest 13 datagrams delivered to upper level 881 total ip packets generated here 871

The following is an example of using the netstats command to print the ICMP statistics: .. code:: c

[/] $ netstats -c ************ ICMP Statistics ************ Type 0 sent 843 number of responses 843 Type 8 received 843

The following is an example of using the netstats command to print the UDP statistics: .. code:: c

[/] $ netstats -u ************ UDP Statistics ************

The following is an example of using the netstats command to print the TCP statistics: .. code:: c

[/] $ netstats -t ************ TCP Statistics ************ connections accepted 1 connections established 1 segs where we tried to get rtt 34 times we succeeded 35 delayed acks sent 2 total packets sent 37 data packets sent 35 data bytes sent 2618 ack-only packets sent 2 total packets received 47 packets received in sequence 12 bytes received in sequence 307 rcvd ack packets 35 bytes acked by rcvd acks 2590 times hdr predict ok for acks 27 times hdr predict ok for data pkts 10

CONFIGURATION:

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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_NETSTATS
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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_NETSTATS

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_NETSTATS`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_NETSTATS when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

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.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_netstats

The netstats is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_netstats( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the netstats has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_NETSTATS_Command;

ifconfig - configure a network interface

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.. index:: ifconfig

SYNOPSYS:

ifconfig
ifconfig interface
ifconfig interface \[up|down]
ifconfig interface \[netmask|pointtopoint|broadcast] IP

DESCRIPTION:

This command may be used to display information about the network interfaces in the system or configure them.

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

Just like its counterpart on GNU/Linux and BSD systems, this command is complicated. More example usages would be a welcome submission.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use ifconfig: .. code:: c

******** INTERFACE STATISTICS ************ ***** eth1 ***** Ethernet Address: 00:04:9F:00:5B:21 Address:192.168.1.244 Broadcast Address:192.168.1.255 Net mask:255.255.255.0 Flags: Up Broadcast Running Active Multicast Send queue limit:50 length:1 Dropped:0 Rx Interrupts:5391 Not First:0 Not Last:0 Giant:0 Non-octet:0 Bad CRC:0 Overrun:0 Collision:0 Tx Interrupts:5256 Deferred:0 Late Collision:0 Retransmit Limit:0 Underrun:0 Misaligned:0

CONFIGURATION:

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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_IFCONFIG
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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_IFCONFIG

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_IFCONFIG`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_IFCONFIG when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

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.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_ifconfig

The ifconfig is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_ifconfig( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the ifconfig has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_IFCONFIG_Command;

route - show or manipulate the ip routing table

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.. index:: route

SYNOPSYS:

route \[subcommand] \[args]

DESCRIPTION:

This command is used to display and manipulate the routing table. When invoked with no arguments, the current routing information is displayed. When invoked with the subcommands add or del, then additional arguments must be provided to describe the route.

Command templates include the following: .. code:: c

route [add|del] -net IP_ADDRESS gw GATEWAY_ADDRESS [netmask MASK] route [add|del] -host IP_ADDRESS gw GATEWAY_ADDRES [netmask MASK]

When not provided the netmask defaults to 255.255.255.0

EXIT STATUS:

This command returns 0 on success and non-zero if an error is encountered.

NOTES:

Just like its counterpart on GNU/Linux and BSD systems, this command is complicated. More example usages would be a welcome submission.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use route to display, add, and delete a new route: .. code:: c

[/] $ route Destination Gateway/Mask/Hw Flags Refs Use Expire Interface default 192.168.1.14 UGS 0 0 0 eth1 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 1 eth1 192.168.1.14 00:A0:C8:1C:EE:28 UHL 1 0 1444 eth1 192.168.1.51 00:1D:7E:0C:D0:7C UHL 0 10844 1202 eth1 192.168.1.151 00:1C:23:B2:0F:BB UHL 2 37 1399 eth1 [/] $ route add -net 192.168.3.0 gw 192.168.1.14 [/] $ route Destination Gateway/Mask/Hw Flags Refs Use Expire Interface default 192.168.1.14 UGS 0 0 0 eth1 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 1 eth1 192.168.1.14 00:A0:C8:1C:EE:28 UHL 2 0 1498 eth1 192.168.1.51 00:1D:7E:0C:D0:7C UHL 0 14937 1202 eth1 192.168.1.151 00:1C:23:B2:0F:BB UHL 2 96 1399 eth1 192.168.3.0 192.168.1.14 UGS 0 0 0 eth1 [/] $ route del -net 192.168.3.0 gw 192.168.1.14 [/] $ route Destination Gateway/Mask/Hw Flags Refs Use Expire Interface default 192.168.1.14 UGS 0 0 0 eth1 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 1 eth1 192.168.1.14 00:A0:C8:1C:EE:28 UHL 1 0 1498 eth1 192.168.1.51 00:1D:7E:0C:D0:7C UHL 0 15945 1202 eth1 192.168.1.151 00:1C:23:B2:0F:BB UHL 2 117 1399 eth1

CONFIGURATION:

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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_ROUTE
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.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_ROUTE

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_ROUTE`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_ROUTE when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

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.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_route

The route is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_route( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the route has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_ROUTE_Command;

ping - ping a host or IP address

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.. index:: ping

SYNOPSYS:

ping \[-AaDdfnoQqRrv] \[-c count] \[-G sweepmaxsize] \[-g sweepminsize]
\[-h sweepincrsize] \[-i wait] \[-l preload] \[-M mask | time] \[-m ttl]
\[-p pattern] \[-S src_addr] \[-s packetsize] \[-t timeout]
\[-W waittime] \[-z tos] host
ping \[-AaDdfLnoQqRrv] \[-c count] \[-I iface] \[-i wait] \[-l preload]
\[-M mask | time] \[-m ttl] \[-p pattern] \[-S src_addr]
\[-s packetsize] \[-T ttl] \[-t timeout] \[-W waittime]
\[-z tos] mcast-group

DESCRIPTION:

The ping utility uses the ICMP protocol’s mandatory ECHO_REQUEST datagram to elicit an ICMP ECHO_RESPONSE from a host or gateway. ECHO_REQUEST datagrams (“pings”) have an IP and ICMP header, followed by a “struct timeval” and then an arbitrary number of “pad” bytes used to fill out the packet. The options are as follows:

-A
Audible. Output a bell (ASCII 0x07) character when no packet is received before the next packet is transmitted. To cater for round-trip times that are longer than the interval between transmissions, further missing packets cause a bell only if the maximum number of unreceived packets has increased.
-a
Audible. Include a bell (ASCII 0x07) character in the output when any packet is received. This option is ignored if other format options are present.
-c count
Stop after sending (and receiving) count ECHO_RESPONSE packets. If this option is not specified, ping will operate until interrupted. If this option is specified in conjunction with ping sweeps, each sweep will consist of count packets.
-D
Set the Don’t Fragment bit.
-d
Set the SO_DEBUG option on the socket being used.
-f
Flood ping. Outputs packets as fast as they come back or one hundred times per second, whichever is more. For every ECHO_REQUEST sent a period “.” is printed, while for every ECHO_REPLY received a backspace is printed. This provides a rapid display of how many packets are being dropped. Only the super-user may use this option. This can be very hard on a network and should be used with caution.
-G sweepmaxsize
Specify the maximum size of ICMP payload when sending sweeping pings. This option is required for ping sweeps.
-g sweepminsize
Specify the size of ICMP payload to start with when sending sweeping pings. The default value is 0.
-h sweepincrsize
Specify the number of bytes to increment the size of ICMP payload after each sweep when sending sweeping pings. The default value is 1.
-I iface
Source multicast packets with the given interface address. This flag only applies if the ping destination is a multicast address.
-i wait
Wait wait seconds between sending each packet. The default is to wait for one second between each packet. The wait time may be fractional, but only the super-user may specify values less than 1 second. This option is incompatible with the -f option.
-L
Suppress loopback of multicast packets. This flag only applies if the ping destination is a multicast address.
-l preload
If preload is specified, ping sends that many packets as fast as possible before falling into its normal mode of behavior. Only the super-user may use this option.
-M mask | time
Use ICMP_MASKREQ or ICMP_TSTAMP instead of ICMP_ECHO. For mask, print the netmask of the remote machine. Set the net.inet.icmp.maskrepl MIB variable to enable ICMP_MASKREPLY. For time, print the origination, reception and transmission timestamps.
-m ttl
Set the IP Time To Live for outgoing packets. If not specified, the kernel uses the value of the net.inet.ip.ttl MIB variable.
-n
Numeric output only. No attempt will be made to lookup symbolic names for host addresses.
-o
Exit successfully after receiving one reply packet.
-p pattern
You may specify up to 16 “pad” bytes to fill out the packet you send. This is useful for diagnosing data-dependent problems in a network. For example, “-p ff” will cause the sent packet to be filled with all ones.
-Q
Somewhat quiet output. Don’t display ICMP error messages that are in response to our query messages. Originally, the -v flag was required to display such errors, but -v displays all ICMP error messages. On a busy machine, this output can be overbear- ing. Without the -Q flag, ping prints out any ICMP error mes- sages caused by its own ECHO_REQUEST messages.
-q
Quiet output. Nothing is displayed except the summary lines at startup time and when finished.
-R
Record route. Includes the RECORD_ROUTE option in the ECHO_REQUEST packet and displays the route buffer on returned packets. Note that the IP header is only large enough for nine such routes; the traceroute(8) command is usually better at determining the route packets take to a particular destination. If more routes come back than should, such as due to an illegal spoofed packet, ping will print the route list and then truncate it at the correct spot. Many hosts ignore or discard the RECORD_ROUTE option.
-r
Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly to a host on an attached network. If the host is not on a directly-attached network, an error is returned. This option can be used to ping a local host through an interface that has no route through it (e.g., after the interface was dropped).
-S src_addr
Use the following IP address as the source address in outgoing packets. On hosts with more than one IP address, this option can be used to force the source address to be something other than the IP address of the interface the probe packet is sent on. If the IP address is not one of this machine’s interface addresses, an error is returned and nothing is sent.
-s packetsize
Specify the number of data bytes to be sent. The default is 56, which translates into 64 ICMP data bytes when combined with the 8 bytes of ICMP header data. Only the super-user may specify val- ues more than default. This option cannot be used with ping sweeps.
-T ttl
Set the IP Time To Live for multicasted packets. This flag only applies if the ping destination is a multicast address.
-t timeout
Specify a timeout, in seconds, before ping exits regardless of how many packets have been received.
-v
Verbose output. ICMP packets other than ECHO_RESPONSE that are received are listed.
-W waittime
Time in milliseconds to wait for a reply for each packet sent. If a reply arrives later, the packet is not printed as replied, but considered as replied when calculating statistics.
-z tos
Use the specified type of service.

EXIT STATUS:

The ping utility exits with one of the following values:

0 At least one response was heard from the specified host.

2 The transmission was successful but no responses were received.

any other value an error occurred. These values are defined in <sysexits.h>.

NOTES:

When using ping for fault isolation, it should first be run on the local host, to verify that the local network interface is up and running. Then, hosts and gateways further and further away should be “pinged”. Round-trip times and packet loss statistics are computed. If duplicate packets are received, they are not included in the packet loss calculation, although the round trip time of these packets is used in calculating the round-trip time statistics. When the specified number of packets have been sent a brief summary is displayed, showing the number of packets sent and received, and the minimum, mean, maximum, and standard deviation of the round-trip times.

This program is intended for use in network testing, measurement and management. Because of the load it can impose on the network, it is unwise to use ping during normal operations or from automated scripts.

EXAMPLES:

The following is an example of how to use oing to ping: .. code:: c

[/] # ping 10.10.10.1 PING 10.10.10.1 (10.10.10.1): 56 data bytes 64 bytes from 10.10.10.1: icmp_seq=0 ttl=63 time=0.356 ms 64 bytes from 10.10.10.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=63 time=0.229 ms 64 bytes from 10.10.10.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=63 time=0.233 ms 64 bytes from 10.10.10.1: icmp_seq=3 ttl=63 time=0.235 ms 64 bytes from 10.10.10.1: icmp_seq=4 ttl=63 time=0.229 ms --- 10.10.10.1 ping statistics --- 5 packets transmitted, 5 packets received, 0.0% packet loss round-trip min/avg/max/stddev = 0.229/0.256/0.356/0.050 ms [/] # ping -f -c 10000 10.10.10.1 PING 10.10.10.1 (10.10.10.1): 56 data bytes . --- 10.10.10.1 ping statistics --- 10000 packets transmitted, 10000 packets received, 0.0% packet loss round-trip min/avg/max/stddev = 0.154/0.225/0.533/0.027 ms

CONFIGURATION:

?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_PING
?
.. index:: CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_PING

This command is included in the default shell command set. When building a custom command set, define``CONFIGURE_SHELL_COMMAND_PING`` to have this command included.

This command can be excluded from the shell command set by defining CONFIGURE_SHELL_NO_COMMAND_PING when all shell commands have been configured.

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION:

?
.. index:: rtems_shell_rtems_main_ping

The ping is implemented by a C language function which has the following prototype: .. code:: c

int rtems_shell_rtems_main_ping( int argc, char **argv );

The configuration structure for the ping has the following prototype: .. code:: c

extern rtems_shell_cmd_t rtems_shell_PING_Command;

Function and Variable Index

Concept Index

Command Index

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