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Quick Start

The quick start will show you how to build a set of RTEMS tools for a supported architecture. The tools are installed into a build prefix. The prefix is the top of a group of directories containing all the files needed to develop RTEMS applications. Building an RTEMS build set will build all that you need. This includes autoconf, automake, assemblers, linkers, compilers, debuggers, standard libraries and RTEMS itself.

There is no need to become root or the administrator and we recommend you avoid doing this. You can build and install the tools anywhere on the host's file system you, as a standard user, have read and write access too. I recommend you use your home directory and work under the directory ~/development/rtems. The examples shown here will do this.

You can use the build prefix to install and maintain different versions of the tools. Doing this lets you try a new set of tools while not touching your proven working production set of tools. Once you have proven the new tools are working rebuild with the production prefix switching your development to them.

We recommend you keep your environment to the bare minimum, particularly the path variable. Using environment variables has been proven over the years to be difficult to manage in production systems.

Warning

The RSB assumes your host is set up and the needed packages are installed and configured to work. If your host has not been set up please refer to :ref:`Hosts` and your host's section for packages you need to install.

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Path to use when building applications:

Do not forget to set the path before you use the tools, for example to build the RTEMS kernel.

The RSB by default will install (copy) the executables to a directory tree under the prefix you supply. To use the tools once finished just set your path to the bin directory under the prefix you use. In the examples that follow the prefix is $HOME/development/rtems/4.11 and is set using the --prefix option so the path you need to configure to build applications can be set with the following in a BASH shell:

$ export PATH=$HOME/development/rtems/4.11/bin:$PATH

Make sure you place the RTEMS tool path at the front of your path so they are searched first. RTEMS can provide newer versions of some tools your operating system provides and placing the RTEMS tools path at the front means it is searched first and the RTEMS needed versions of the tools are used.

Note

RSB and RTEMS have a matching git branch for each version of RTEMS. For example, if you want to build a toolchain for 4.11, then you should checkout the 4.11 branch of the RSB:

$ git checkout -t origin/4.11

Branches are available for the 4.9, 4.10, and 4.11 versions of RTEMS.

Setup

Setup a development work space:

$ cd
$ mkdir -p development/rtems/src
$ cd development/rtems/src

The RTEMS Source Builder is distributed as source. It is Python code so all you need to do is download the release's RSB tarball or clone the code directly from the RTEMS GIT repository:

$ git clone git://git.rtems.org/rtems-source-builder.git
$ cd rtems-source-builder

Workspaces

The examples in the Quick Start Guide build and install tools in your home directory. Please refer to the RTEMS User Manual for more detail about Sandboxing and the prefix.

Checking

The next step is to check if your host is set up correctly. The RTEMS Source Builder provides a tool to help:

$ source-builder/sb-check
warning: exe: absolute exe found in path: (__objcopy) /usr/local/bin/objcopy <1>
warning: exe: absolute exe found in path: (__objdump) /usr/local/bin/objdump
error: exe: not found: (_xz) /usr/local/bin/xz    <2>
RTEMS Source Builder environment is not correctly set up
$ source-builder/sb-check
RTEMS Source Builder environment is ok   <3>

Items:

  1. A tool is in the environment path but it does not match the expected path.
  2. The executable xz is not found.
  3. The host's environment is set up correct.

The checking tool will output a list of executable files not found if problems are detected. Locate those executable files and install them. You may also be given a list of warnings about executable files not in the expected location however the executable was located somewhere in your environment's path. You will need to check each tool to determine if this is an issue. An executable not in the standard location may indicate it is not the host operating system's standard tool. It maybe ok or it could be buggy, only you can determine this.

The :ref:`Hosts` section lists packages you should install for common host operating systems. It maybe worth checking if you have those installed.

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Build Sets

The RTEMS tools can be built within the RTEMS Source Builder's source tree. We recommend you do this so lets change into the RTEMS directory in the RTEMS Source Builder package:

$ cd rtems

If you are unsure how to specify the build set for the architecture you wish to build ask the tool:

$ ../source-builder/sb-set-builder --list-bsets   <1>
RTEMS Source Builder - Set Builder, v4.11.0
Examining: config
Examining: ../source-builder/config    <2>
    4.10/rtems-all.bset      <3>
    4.10/rtems-arm.bset      <4>
    4.10/rtems-autotools.bset
    4.10/rtems-avr.bset
    4.10/rtems-bfin.bset
    4.10/rtems-h8300.bset
    4.10/rtems-i386.bset
    4.10/rtems-lm32.bset
    4.10/rtems-m32c.bset
    4.10/rtems-m32r.bset
    4.10/rtems-m68k.bset
    4.10/rtems-mips.bset
    4.10/rtems-nios2.bset
    4.10/rtems-powerpc.bset
    4.10/rtems-sh.bset
    4.10/rtems-sparc.bset
    4.11/rtems-all.bset
    4.11/rtems-arm.bset
    4.11/rtems-autotools.bset
    4.11/rtems-avr.bset
    4.11/rtems-bfin.bset
    4.11/rtems-h8300.bset
    4.11/rtems-i386.bset
    4.11/rtems-lm32.bset
    4.11/rtems-m32c.bset
    4.11/rtems-m32r.bset
    4.11/rtems-m68k.bset
    4.11/rtems-microblaze.bset
    4.11/rtems-mips.bset
    4.11/rtems-moxie.bset
    4.11/rtems-nios2.bset
    4.11/rtems-powerpc.bset
    4.11/rtems-sh.bset
    4.11/rtems-sparc.bset
    4.11/rtems-sparc64.bset
    4.11/rtems-v850.bset
    4.9/rtems-all.bset
    4.9/rtems-arm.bset
    4.9/rtems-autotools.bset
    4.9/rtems-i386.bset
    4.9/rtems-m68k.bset
    4.9/rtems-mips.bset
    4.9/rtems-powerpc.bset
    4.9/rtems-sparc.bset
    gnu-tools-4.6.bset
    rtems-4.10-base.bset    <5>
    rtems-4.11-base.bset
    rtems-4.9-base.bset
    rtems-base.bset         <5>

Items:

  1. Only option required is --list-bsets

  2. The paths inspected. See :ref:`Configuration`.

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  3. A build set to build all RTEMS 4.10 supported architectures.

  4. The build set for the ARM architecture on RTEMS 4.10.

  5. Support build set file with common functionality included by other build set files.

Building

The quick start builds a SPARC tool set:

$ ../source-builder/sb-set-builder --log=l-sparc.txt \   <1>
      --prefix=$HOME/development/rtems/4.11 \       <2>
      4.11/rtems-sparc           <3>
Source Builder - Set Builder, v0.2.0
Build Set: 4.11/rtems-sparc
config: expat-2.1.0-1.cfg        <4>
package: expat-2.1.0-x86_64-freebsd9.1-1
building: expat-2.1.0-x86_64-freebsd9.1-1
config: tools/rtems-binutils-2.22-1.cfg        <5>
package: sparc-rtems4.11-binutils-2.22-1
building: sparc-rtems4.11-binutils-2.22-1
config: tools/rtems-gcc-4.7.2-newlib-1.20.0-1.cfg   <6>
package: sparc-rtems4.11-gcc-4.7.2-newlib-1.20.0-1
building: sparc-rtems4.11-gcc-4.7.2-newlib-1.20.0-1
config: tools/rtems-gdb-7.5.1-1.cfg      <7>
package: sparc-rtems4.11-gdb-7.5.1-1
building: sparc-rtems4.11-gdb-7.5.1-1
installing: rtems-4.11-sparc-rtems4.11-1 -> /home/chris/development/rtems/4.11 <8>
installing: rtems-4.11-sparc-rtems4.11-1 -> /home/chris/development/rtems/4.11
installing: rtems-4.11-sparc-rtems4.11-1 -> /home/chris/development/rtems/4.11
installing: rtems-4.11-sparc-rtems4.11-1 -> /home/chris/development/rtems/4.11
cleaning: expat-2.1.0-x86_64-freebsd9.1-1     <9>
cleaning: sparc-rtems4.11-binutils-2.22-1
cleaning: sparc-rtems4.11-gcc-4.7.2-newlib-1.20.0-1
cleaning: sparc-rtems4.11-gdb-7.5.1-1
Build Set: Time 0:13:43.616383        <10>

Items

  1. Providing a log file redirects the build output into a file. Logging the build output provides a simple way to report problems.
  2. The prefix is the location on your file system the tools are installed into. Provide a prefix to a location you have read and write access. You can use the prefix to install different versions or builds of tools. Just use the path to the tools you want to use when building RTEMS.
  3. The build set. This is the SPARC build set. First a specifically referenced file is checked for and if not found the %{_configdir} path is searched. The set builder will first look for files with a .bset extension and then for a configuration file with a .cfg extension.
  4. The SPARC build set first builds the expat library as it is used in GDB. This is the expat configuration used.
  5. The binutils build configuration.
  6. The GCC and Newlib build configuration.
  7. The GDB build configuration.
  8. Installing the built packages to the install prefix.
  9. All the packages built are cleaned at the end. If the build fails all the needed files are present. You may have to clean up by deleting the build directory if the build fails.
  10. The time to build the package. This lets you see how different host hardware or configurations perform.

Your SPARC RTEMS 4.11 tool set will be installed and ready to build RTEMS and RTEMS applications. When the build runs you will notice the tool fetch the source code from the internet. These files are cached in directies called source and patches. If you run the build again the cached files are used. This is what happened in the shown example. Archiving these directories archives the source you need to recreate the build.

RTEMS Releases

The RSB found in a release will automatically build and install RTEMS. If you do not want a released version of the RSB to build RTEMS add --without-rtems to the command line. The development version requires adding --with-rtems to build RTEMS. Use this option to create a single command to build the tools and RTEMS.

The source used in release builds is downloaded from the RTEMS FTP server. This ensures the source is always available for a release.

The installed tools:

$ ls $HOME/development/rtems/4.11
bin         include     lib         libexec     share       sparc-rtems4.11
$ ls $HOME/development/rtems/4.11/bin
sparc-rtems4.11-addr2line       sparc-rtems4.11-cpp
sparc-rtems4.11-gcc-ar          sparc-rtems4.11-gprof
sparc-rtems4.11-objdump         sparc-rtems4.11-size
sparc-rtems4.11-ar              sparc-rtems4.11-elfedit
sparc-rtems4.11-gcc-nm          sparc-rtems4.11-ld
sparc-rtems4.11-ranlib          sparc-rtems4.11-strings
sparc-rtems4.11-as              sparc-rtems4.11-g++
sparc-rtems4.11-gcc-ranlib      sparc-rtems4.11-ld.bfd
sparc-rtems4.11-readelf         sparc-rtems4.11-strip
sparc-rtems4.11-c++             sparc-rtems4.11-gcc
sparc-rtems4.11-gcov            sparc-rtems4.11-nm
sparc-rtems4.11-run             xmlwf
sparc-rtems4.11-c++filt         sparc-rtems4.11-gcc-4.7.2
sparc-rtems4.11-gdb             sparc-rtems4.11-objcopy
sparc-rtems4.11-sis
$ $HOME/development/rtems/4.11/bin/sparc-rtems4.11-gcc -v
Using built-in specs.
COLLECT_GCC=/home/chris/development/rtems/4.11/bin/sparc-rtems4.11-gcc
COLLECT_LTO_WRAPPER=/usr/home/chris/development/rtems/4.11/bin/../ \
libexec/gcc/sparc-rtems4.11/4.7.2/lto-wrapper
Target: sparc-rtems4.11                         <1>
Configured with: ../gcc-4.7.2/configure         <2>
--prefix=/home/chris/development/rtems/4.11
--bindir=/home/chris/development/rtems/4.11/bin
--exec_prefix=/home/chris/development/rtems/4.11
--includedir=/home/chris/development/rtems/4.11/include
--libdir=/home/chris/development/rtems/4.11/lib
--libexecdir=/home/chris/development/rtems/4.11/libexec
--mandir=/home/chris/development/rtems/4.11/share/man
--infodir=/home/chris/development/rtems/4.11/share/info
--datadir=/home/chris/development/rtems/4.11/share
--build=x86_64-freebsd9.1 --host=x86_64-freebsd9.1 --target=sparc-rtems4.11
--disable-libstdcxx-pch --with-gnu-as --with-gnu-ld --verbose --with-newlib
--with-system-zlib --disable-nls --without-included-gettext
--disable-win32-registry --enable-version-specific-runtime-libs --disable-lto
--enable-threads --enable-plugin --enable-newlib-io-c99-formats
--enable-newlib-iconv --enable-languages=c,c++
Thread model: rtems             <3>
gcc version 4.7.2 20120920      <4>
 (RTEMS 4.11 RSB cb12e4875c203f794a5cd4b3de36101ff9a88403)-1 newlib 2.0.0) (GCC)

Items

  1. The target the compiler is built for.
  2. The configure options used to build GCC.
  3. The threading model is always RTEMS. This makes using the RTEMS tools for bare metal development more difficult.
  4. The version string. It contains the Git hash of the RTEMS Source Builder you are using. If your local clone has been modifed that state is also recorded in the version string. The hash allows you to track from a GCC executable back to the original source used to build it.

Note

The RTEMS thread model enables specific hooks in GCC so applications built with RTEMS tools need the RTEMS runtime to operate correctly. You can use RTEMS tools to build bare metal component but it is more difficult than with a bare metal tool chain and you need to know what you are doing at a low level. The RTEMS Source Builder can build bare metal tool chains as well. Look in the top level bare directory.

Distributing and Archiving A Build

If you wish to create and distribute your build or you want to archive a build you can create a tar file. This is a more advanced method for binary packaging and installing of tools.

By default the RTEMS Source Builder installs the built packages directly and optionally it can also create a build set tar file or a package tar file per package built. The normal and default behaviour is to let the RTEMS Source Builder install the tools. The source will be downloaded, built, installed and cleaned up.

The tar files are created with the full build prefix present and if you follow the examples given in this documentation the path is absolute. This can cause problems if you are installing on a host you do not have super user or administrator rights on because the prefix path may references part you do not have write access too and tar will not extract the files. You can use the --strip-components option in tar if your host tar application supports it to remove the parts you do not have write access too or you may need to unpack the tar file somewhere and copy the file tree from the level you have write access from. Embedding the full prefix path in the tar files lets you know what the prefix is and is recommended. For example if /home/chris/development/rtems/4.11 is the prefix used you cannot change directory to the root (/) and install because the /home is root access only. To install you would:

$ cd
$ tar --strip-components=3 -xjf rtems-4.11-sparc-rtems4.11-1.tar.bz2

A build set tar file is created by adding --bset-tar-file option to the sb-set-builder command:

$ ../source-builder/sb-set-builder --log=l-sparc.txt \
         --prefix=$HOME/development/rtems/4.11 \
         --bset-tar-file \     <1>
         4.11/rtems-sparc
Source Builder - Set Builder, v0.2.0
Build Set: 4.11/rtems-sparc
config: expat-2.1.0-1.cfg
package: expat-2.1.0-x86_64-freebsd9.1-1
building: expat-2.1.0-x86_64-freebsd9.1-1
config: tools/rtems-binutils-2.22-1.cfg
package: sparc-rtems4.11-binutils-2.22-1
building: sparc-rtems4.11-binutils-2.22-1
config: tools/rtems-gcc-4.7.2-newlib-1.20.0-1.cfg
package: sparc-rtems4.11-gcc-4.7.2-newlib-1.20.0-1
building: sparc-rtems4.11-gcc-4.7.2-newlib-1.20.0-1
config: tools/rtems-gdb-7.5.1-1.cfg
package: sparc-rtems4.11-gdb-7.5.1-1
building: sparc-rtems4.11-gdb-7.5.1-1
installing: rtems-4.11-sparc-rtems4.11-1 -> /home/chris/development/rtems/4.11 <2>
installing: rtems-4.11-sparc-rtems4.11-1 -> /home/chris/development/rtems/4.11
installing: rtems-4.11-sparc-rtems4.11-1 -> /home/chris/development/rtems/4.11
installing: rtems-4.11-sparc-rtems4.11-1 -> /home/chris/development/rtems/4.11
tarball: tar/rtems-4.11-sparc-rtems4.11-1.tar.bz2      <3>
cleaning: expat-2.1.0-x86_64-freebsd9.1-1
cleaning: sparc-rtems4.11-binutils-2.22-1
cleaning: sparc-rtems4.11-gcc-4.7.2-newlib-1.20.0-1
cleaning: sparc-rtems4.11-gdb-7.5.1-1
Build Set: Time 0:15:25.92873

Items

  1. The option to create a build set tar file.
  2. The installation still happens unless you specify --no-install.
  3. Creating the build set tar file.

You can also suppress installing the files using the --no-install option. This is useful if your prefix is not accessiable, for example when building Canadian cross compiled tool sets:

$ ../source-builder/sb-set-builder --log=l-sparc.txt \
            --prefix=$HOME/development/rtems/4.11 \
            --bset-tar-file \
            --no-install \      <1>
            4.11/rtems-sparc
Source Builder - Set Builder, v0.2.0
Build Set: 4.11/rtems-sparc
config: expat-2.1.0-1.cfg
package: expat-2.1.0-x86_64-freebsd9.1-1
building: expat-2.1.0-x86_64-freebsd9.1-1
config: tools/rtems-binutils-2.22-1.cfg
package: sparc-rtems4.11-binutils-2.22-1
building: sparc-rtems4.11-binutils-2.22-1
config: tools/rtems-gcc-4.7.2-newlib-1.20.0-1.cfg
package: sparc-rtems4.11-gcc-4.7.2-newlib-1.20.0-1
building: sparc-rtems4.11-gcc-4.7.2-newlib-1.20.0-1
config: tools/rtems-gdb-7.5.1-1.cfg
package: sparc-rtems4.11-gdb-7.5.1-1
building: sparc-rtems4.11-gdb-7.5.1-1
tarball: tar/rtems-4.11-sparc-rtems4.11-1.tar.bz2    <2>
cleaning: expat-2.1.0-x86_64-freebsd9.1-1
cleaning: sparc-rtems4.11-binutils-2.22-1
cleaning: sparc-rtems4.11-gcc-4.7.2-newlib-1.20.0-1
cleaning: sparc-rtems4.11-gdb-7.5.1-1
Build Set: Time 0:14:11.721274
$ ls tar
rtems-4.11-sparc-rtems4.11-1.tar.bz2

Items

  1. The option to supressing installing the packages.
  2. Create the build set tar.

A package tar file can be created by adding the --pkg-tar-files to the sb-set-builder command. This creates a tar file per package built in the build set:

$ ../source-builder/sb-set-builder --log=l-sparc.txt \
        --prefix=$HOME/development/rtems/4.11 \
        --bset-tar-file \
        --pkg-tar-files \        <1>
        --no-install 4.11/rtems-sparc
Source Builder - Set Builder, v0.2.0
Build Set: 4.11/rtems-sparc
config: expat-2.1.0-1.cfg
package: expat-2.1.0-x86_64-freebsd9.1-1
building: expat-2.1.0-x86_64-freebsd9.1-1
config: tools/rtems-binutils-2.22-1.cfg
package: sparc-rtems4.11-binutils-2.22-1
building: sparc-rtems4.11-binutils-2.22-1
config: tools/rtems-gcc-4.7.2-newlib-1.20.0-1.cfg
package: sparc-rtems4.11-gcc-4.7.2-newlib-1.20.0-1
building: sparc-rtems4.11-gcc-4.7.2-newlib-1.20.0-1
config: tools/rtems-gdb-7.5.1-1.cfg
package: sparc-rtems4.11-gdb-7.5.1-1
building: sparc-rtems4.11-gdb-7.5.1-1
tarball: tar/rtems-4.11-sparc-rtems4.11-1.tar.bz2
cleaning: expat-2.1.0-x86_64-freebsd9.1-1
cleaning: sparc-rtems4.11-binutils-2.22-1
cleaning: sparc-rtems4.11-gcc-4.7.2-newlib-1.20.0-1
cleaning: sparc-rtems4.11-gdb-7.5.1-1
Build Set: Time 0:14:37.658460
$ ls tar
expat-2.1.0-x86_64-freebsd9.1-1.tar.bz2           sparc-rtems4.11-binutils-2.22-1.tar.bz2
sparc-rtems4.11-gdb-7.5.1-1.tar.bz2 <2>           rtems-4.11-sparc-rtems4.11-1.tar.bz2 <3>
sparc-rtems4.11-gcc-4.7.2-newlib-1.20.0-1.tar.bz2

Items

  1. The option to create packages tar files.
  2. The GDB package tar file.
  3. The build set tar file. All the others in a single tar file.

Controlling the Build

Build sets can be controlled via the command line to enable and disable various features. There is no definitive list of build options that can be listed because they are implemented with the configuration scripts. The best way to find what is available is to grep the configuration files. for with and without.

Following are currentlt available:

--without-rtems
Do not build RTEMS when building an RTEMS build set.
--without-cxx
Do not build a C++ compiler.
--with-objc
Attempt to build a C++ compiler.
--with-fortran
Attempt to build a Fortran compiler.
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